Managers and Management • Managers in today’s market must update tools and principles on a continuous basis. • Management development is increasingly global in outlook and places a high value on contributing to organizational effectiveness and competitive advantage. • To be successful a manager must use and integrated approach, using a combination of tools and principles.
Management Development • High performance leading organizations are increasingly distinguished by 7 features: 1. Linking management development to business plans and strategies. 2. Being boundless, flat, nonhierarchical 3. Using global and cross cultural orientation 4. Individualizing learning that is focused within the context of organizational learning 5. Applying customized training aligned with corporate culture 6. Employing a career development focus 7. Focusing on the development of core competencies.
Management is also a Human Activity • As a human activity management emphasizes the importance of employees with whom managers work and whom they manage in accomplishing an organization’s objectives. • In organizations, people are the most important asset. Successful managers understand this and recognize the need to establish a strong bond between the organization and the relationships of the manager and the people they manage.
Challenges and Opportunities for OB • Responding to Globalization • Managing Workforce Diversity • Improving Quality and Productivity • Empowering People • Coping with Temporariness • Stimulating Innovation and Change • Improving Ethical Behavior – defining right & wrong • Information Technology
The Flip Side • Access to a Changing Marketplace • Large Scale Business Transformation • Superior Customer Service • Workforce Empowerment • Total Quality • Alliances with Suppliers & Customers • Continuous Learning
People are the purpose and profits are the means, and not the other way round. It should not be: people are the resources & profits the purpose – Bohdan Hawrlyshyn, Economist & Advisor to Ukranian President
Globalisation • Inequality – Share of global income of poor people has fallen from 2.3 to 1.4% in the last decade • Total world income increased by 2.5% annually; actual number of people living in poverty increased • GE has assets of $500 billion, more than GDP of some countries • Disregarding environment in stampede for mega profits & marketplace supremacy • Corporate power restricting individual freedom • Increased Foreign Assignments • Different Cultures • Outsourcing
Globalisation Challenges • Globalisation effects Managers & Professionals • Internationalisation puts a premium on certain competencies / skills • Managerial learning is critical: Teamwork • Managing careers in the global context
“ Globalization is neither new nor in general a folly. While we have good reasons to address difficulties arising out of globalization, we must be careful that we do not end up choosing the life of the kupamanduka (the frog in the well whose view of the world is confined to that space)” Amartya Sen, Nobel Laureate
Alternative to Globalization? “ Think Globally, Act Locally” • Localization reverses the trend of globalization by discriminating in favor of the local. • Depending on context, the 'local' may be part of a nation state, the state itself or even a regional grouping of states. • At the heart of localization is a rejection of today's environmentally and socially damaging subservience in the name of 'international competitiveness'.
The Indian Way India’s Green Revolution • Since 1985 India has lifted more than 100 million people out of desperate poverty in urban centers and the hinterland alike, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute • India’s best companies are targeting global markets • But to sustain these advances, the country cannot rest. Its leaders must focus on building infrastructure and developing a thriving labor market.
Managing Diversity Language Religion Experiences Marital Status Ethnicity Race Geographic Location Parental Status Sexual Orientation Mental / Physical Qualities Primary Dimensions Age Education Gender Occupation Income Work Experience Secondary Dimensions
Barriers to Accepting Diversity • Prejudice • Ethnocentrism • Stereotypes • Discrimination • Harassment • Sexual Harassment • Backlash
Managing Diversity • Increasing Awareness • Providing Accurate Information • Uncovering Personal Biases & Stereotypes • Assessing Personal Beliefs, Attitudes, & Values: Learning about others • Overturning Inaccurate Beliefs & Stereotypes • Developing an atmosphere of sharing • Improving understanding of others • Increasing Diversity Skills • Cultural Diversity • Gender Diversity
“At IBM diversity is seen as the ‘bridge between the workplace and the market place and it has become central to IBM’s ability to win in the global market place”. • From ethnocentric to Geocentric • Age, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation
Changing Demographics of Workforce • Age • Dual Career Couples • Increase in Working mothers • From Blue-collar to White-collar
Changed Employee Expectations • Traditional incentives such as job-security, attractive remuneration, housing etc not enough to attract, retain & motivate workforce • Empowerment • Quality of Status • Employee Influence & Involvement • Upward Communications • Better Treatment • Challenging Assignments • Career Advancements
Technology Transformation • Dimensions of Technology • Automation
Information Technology • Dotcoms • Internet • Intranet • E-mail • Mobile phones • Conference calls
Behavioral Implications of Advanced Technology • Leaner Organisations • De-layering • Downsizing / Rightsizing • Outsourcing • Wired Organisations • Telecommunications • Web Conferencing • Webinars (Web Seminars) • Internet • E-mail • CCTVs • Privacy • Group Cohesiveness • Motivation • Organisational Hierarchies • Time Differences • Communication • Leadership
Virtual Offices • Changing Nature of Managing Work • Different Stressors • Temp Staffing
Ethical Behavior • Ethics : System of moral principles • Importance of Ethics • Basic Human needs • Values create credibility with public • Values give management credibility with employees • values help in better decision-making • Ethics & Profits go together • Ethics can protect society better than law can
Cultural Influences Role Expectations Organisational Influences Individual Ethical Behavior External Factors
Managing Ethics • Top Management • Code of Ethics • Ethics Committee • Ethics Hot Lines • Ethics training programs • Ethics & Law