types of joints and the anatomy of the synovial joint n.
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Types of Joints and the Anatomy of the Synovial Joint. What is an Articulation (Joint). Point of contact between two bones **There are three types of joints. 1. Fibrous Joints. Also called “sutures”

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Presentation Transcript
what is an articulation joint
What is an Articulation (Joint)
  • Point of contact between two bones

**There are three types of joints

1 fibrous joints
1. Fibrous Joints
  • Also called “sutures”
  • These joints are bound tightly together by connective tissue and allows ZERO movement (immovable joint)
  • Ex. Interlocking bones of the skull
2 cartilaginous joints
2. Cartilaginous Joints
  • Occur where the body of one bone connects to the body of another bone by means of cartilage and allows SLIGHT movement
  • Ex. Intervertebral discs
3 synovial joints
3. Synovial Joints
  • Occurs where bony surfaces are separated by a lubricating fluid (synovia) and by cartilage
  • Also joined by ligaments, which enclose the ends of articulating bones and form the synovial-containing capsule
  • Allows MOST movement
examples of synovial joints
Examples of Synovial Joints

Knee

Ankle

Elbow

Shoulder

1 articulating cartilage
1. Articulating Cartilage
  • Allow for smooth contact surface
  • Acts as a shock absorber
2 joint cavity
2. Joint Cavity
  • Located between two bony articulating surfaces
  • Filled with synovial fluid (joint lubricant)
    • Essential in reducing friction and providing nutrients for articulating cartilage
3 joint capsule
3. Joint Capsule
  • Fibrous structure that consist of the:
    • Synovial membrane (allows certain nutrients to pass through to synovial fluid)
    • Fibrous capsule (keeps synovial fluid from leaking)

** Membrane is medial to capsule

4 bursae
4. Bursae
  • Small flattened sacs
  • Prevents friction between tendons, ligaments and bones
intrinsic ligaments
Intrinsic Ligaments
  • Thick bands of fibrous connective tissue
  • Helps thicken and reinforce the joint capsule
  • Ex. Forming the joint capsule or the meniscus of the knee
extrinsic ligaments
Extrinsic Ligaments
  • Separate from the joint capsule and help to reinforce the joint by attaching bones together
gliding joint
Gliding Joint
  • Also known as a “plane” or “arthrodial” joint
  • Connects flat or slightly curved bone surfaces
    • Ex. Joints between tarsals
    • Ex. Joints between carpals
hinge joints
Hinge Joints
  • Also known as a “ginglymus” joint
  • Think of the hinge of a door…
  • Convex portion of one bone fitting into a concave portion of another
  • Allows movement on one plane
  • Ex. Joint between phalanges
  • Ex. Joint between humerus and ulna
  • Ex. Joint between femur and

tibia

pivot joints
Pivot Joints
  • Also known as a “trochoid” joint
  • Allows rotation in one plane (uni-axial)
  • A rounded point of one bone fits into a groove of another
  • Ex. Atlantoaxial joint (between atlas and axis– shake head “no”)
  • Ex. Between radius and ulna at humerus
ellipsoid joints
Ellipsoid Joints
  • Allows movement on two planes (bi-axial)
  • Ex. Metaphalangeal joint
saddle joints
Saddle Joints
  • Allows movement in two planes
  • Movements include flexion/extension and abduction/adduction
  • Does not have a ball-and-socket rotation
  • Ex. Carpo-metacarpal articulation
ball and socket joint
Ball and Socket Joint
  • Also known as a “spherodial” joint
  • “Ball” at one bone fits into the “socket” of another, allowing movements around all three axis
  • Ex. Hip
  • Ex. Shoulder