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Wheelchairs

Wheelchairs

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Wheelchairs

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  1. Wheelchairs Updated 9/17/2018

  2. Acknowledgement Miriam Manary The University of MichiganTransportation Research Institute (UMTRI)

  3. Background • In general, not designed for transportation purposes • If possible, transfer occupant to appropriate restraint

  4. Background In some cases, children are transported in wheelchairs • Transfer issues • No CSS fits • Independent mobility Source: Google

  5. Occupant Protection in Wheelchairs • Secure the wheelchair independent of the rider • Secure/protect the rider • Face rider forward • Upper and lower torso (lap) restraint belts required • Lap belt angles between 45-75 degrees to vertical • If possible use tie downs, restraint belts and wheelchairs that meet current standards Source: UMTRI

  6. Voluntary Standards • WC18-Compliant • Wheelchair Tie-Down and Occupant Restraint Systems (WTORS) • WC19-Compliant • Wheelchairs (frames and seating) used as seats in motor vehicles • WC 20-Compliant • Seating systems

  7. WC18-Compliant • Tests strength of WTORS and ability to restrain forward motion of wheelchair and rider • Pass 30 mph dynamic test 4-point tie down Source: UMTRI

  8. WC18-Compliant • WTORS must: • Provide both upper and lower torso restraint to protect the rider Source: UMTRI

  9. WC19-Compliant • Wheelchair (frame + seating) designed by manufacturer as a seat in a motor vehicle • Strong crashworthy frame • Absence of sharp edges • Better occupant seat belt fit Source: Convaid

  10. WC19-Compliant Have clearly marked securement points on the frame for tie down attachment • Must be able to hook using one hand in 10 seconds or less

  11. WC19-Compliant • Some manufacturers may provide option of a crash- tested lap belt • Lap belt will be labeled it complies with WC19 and will allow connecting to a vehicle mounted shoulder belt

  12. WC20-Compliant • Crash test of WC seating system on “surrogate” frame (20 g frontal impact) • WC20 seating system must be used with WC19 wheelchair • Several manufacturers have met new standard Source: Therafin

  13. Logo • Introduced December 2012 • Used for WTORS, wheelchairs and seating systems that comply with latest version of WC-18, WC-19 and WC-20

  14. Securing the Wheelchairto the Vehicle • Always position wheelchair and rider facing forward • Secure wheelchair to vehicle using an appropriate tie-down system

  15. Securing the Wheelchair to the Vehicle 4-point tie-down: • Most common, affordable and effective • Universal tie-down that works with wide range of wheelchairs • Commonly used in public and school transportation • Requires someone to attach straps for person seated in wheelchair Illustration of WC-19 wheelchair secured to vehicle with four tie-downs, adapted from Ride Safer brochure.

  16. Securing the Wheelchair to the Vehicle • Never attach tie downs to moveable parts • Always tighten and remove all slack from straps

  17. Securing a WC19-Compliant Wheelchair • Attach tie-down straps to designated securement points • Tighten straps and remove all slack

  18. Securing a Non-WC19 Wheelchair • Attach tie-down straps to welded junctions of wheelchair frame or to structural areas where frame is fastened with hardened steel bolts • Choose securement points as high as possible but below seat surface Illustration from UMTRI of hardened steel bolts indicated by six raised lines or bumps on head of bolt

  19. Securingthe Wheelchair Rider • Use crash-tested lap and shoulder belts • Lap belt low on hips and angled between 45 and 75 degrees to the horizontal when viewed from side Source: UMTRI

  20. Securingthe Wheelchair Rider • Shoulder belt across collarbone and center of chest • Some wheelchairs may have integrated crashworthy lap belt that anchors to wheelchair and has connector hardware to attach to vehicle mounted shoulder belt

  21. Postural Supports Postural support belts attached to wheelchair are NOT strong enough to withstand crash forces Dynaform posture support Source: AEL Postural pelvic belt

  22. Helpful Hints • Remove trays and secure them • Properly positioned headrest helps protect neck in a rear impact • Soft cervical collar if needed • Secure equipment

  23. Helpful Hints • Read and follow manufacturer’s instructions • Best to ride with wheelchair backrest positioned at an angle of 30 degrees or less to the vertical • Check WTORS equipment regularly • Wheelchair maintenance regularly • If WTORS or wheelchair have been in crash check with manufacturer about replacement if necessary

  24. Misuse Exercise

  25. Wheelchair Misuse

  26. Wheelchair Misuse

  27. Wheelchair Misuse