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*. The Immune System and Disease pre 1600s - cause of disease not known Punishment from God, bad luck, bad air, witchcraft, curses etc…. After 1600s , microscopy and germ theory of disease Scientific basis for disease, doctors did not wear gloves, no anesthesia, no sterile technique

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The Immune System and Disease

  • pre 1600s - cause of disease not known
    • Punishment from God, bad luck, bad air, witchcraft, curses etc….
  • After 1600s, microscopy and germ theory of disease
    • Scientific basis for disease, doctors did not wear gloves, no anesthesia, no sterile technique
  • antibiotics - penicillin, 1940s. Revolutionized medicine
pathogen a biological unit that causes disease
Pathogen = A biological unit that causes disease
  • prion – protein – no DNA AND not alive!!
  • virus - non living, needs host cell to replicate
  • bacteria - single celled microbe
  • protozoa
    • single celled eukaryote microbe
  • parasite - multicellular
  • Most microbes are NOT pathogens
disease terms
Disease Terms

1. Infectious

  • Can be transmitted from person (or animal) to person

Body fluids – example:

Vectors – example:

Ingestion – example:

Inhalation – example:

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2. Epidemic
  • Contagious disease that spreads rapidly and uncontrollably affected large numbers of people

3. Plague

epidemic that kills large numbers of people

prions rare spongiform encephalopathy disease
Prions = (rare) spongiform encephalopathy disease

CJD in humans

  • Always fatal, no treatment
  • Most cases sporadic (arise spontaneously) or inherited
  • Can be acquired from exposure to infected brains
  • Example: Kuru

Sponge-like brain

outbreak in england 1980s
Outbreak in England 1980s
  • Cows stagger, shake, fall down (“mad cow”)
  • Transmitted to ~18 humans via contaminated hamburger meat
  • Caused by an infectious agent that is NOT alive and has no DNA !
how does a prion cause disease
How does a prion cause disease ?
  • Normal prp protein undergoes a shape change
  • Brain cells lyse  spongy brain
viruses
VIRUSES
  • Antiviral drugs or wait it out
    • consist of protein + genetic material
    • infect cells and reproduce
    • Smallpox virus (not in textbook)
      • pustules disfigure, blind, kill
      • eradicated in 1977
other viruses
Other viruses
  • Rhinovirus (50) colds
  • Influenza -the flu (not in textbook)
  • changes genetic makeup every year

40 million deaths in 1920 in 4 months!

>30,000 die in US each year!

  • new vaccine needed every year because it changes so rapidly
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HIV - human immunodeficiency virus

infects T cells -> destroys immune system

May lead to AIDS and opportunistic infections

>60 million infected worldwide

Transmitted by:

poliomyelitis virus
Poliomyelitis virus
  • attacks the nervous system -> paralysis
  • virus shed in feces (improved sanitation and hygiene helps to prevent transmission but its easily transmissible!)
  • 1916 New York, 27,000 infected, 9000 died
bacteria
Bacteria
  • single celled, prokaryotic
  • May be killed by antibiotics
    • penicillin, tetracycline etc...
    • antibiotic resistance problem
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Lyme disease caused by B. burgdorferi bacteria
  • Tick vector
  • Tick feeds on blood -> bacteria migrate to mouthparts
  • Bulls-eye rash
  • treat early with antibiotics or joint/nervous system problems

Look at the size of this tick!

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Salmonella (not in textbook) (Daniel Salmon)
  • From contaminated chicken, eggs
  • Must heat to 160 F to destroy, or wash off
  • Diarrhea, nausea, can be fatal in some
e coli spinach cases rise to 173 25 states
E. Coli Spinach Cases Rise to 173 (25 states)
  • E. coli O157:H7 – pathogenic
    • Killed in 15 seconds at 160F

E. Coli 0157:H7 lives in intestines of healthy cattle, can contaminate agriculture

73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths occur in the United States each year

bloody diarrhea, and occasionally kidney failure. Treatment is not antibiotics!

.

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Consumers can prevent E. coli O157:H7 infection by
    • cook ground beef
    • avoid unpasteurized milk
    • wash hands before preparing or eating food
    • wash fruits and vegetables
protozoa
Protozoa

Malaria

  • mosquito vector contains protozoa (single-celled eukaryote)
  • Periodic bursting of protozoa from red blood cells
  • Fever, weakness, death
  • 300 million infected, millions die each year
parasites
Parasites

Multicellular animals

  • hookworm, tapeworm, pinworm, heartworm (dogs)
  • diarrhea, weakness, weight loss

tapeworm

Roundworm infects millions of people

Up to 12 inches in length

Note: you may not want to see next….

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Loa loa

Nematode worm transimitted by Chrysops flies

10 million in Western Africa

Elephantitis

lymphatic filariasis

Nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes

120 million in 80 countries

Round worms (Ascaris)

1.2 billion infected

Head lice

organs of the immune lymphatic system
Organs of the immune (lymphatic) system

tonsils

Lymph nodes

thymus

spleen

Also, bone marrow

many species of bacteria in human large intestines gut flora
Many species of bacteria in human large intestines = gut flora
  • 10 13 human cells and 1015 bacterial cells in gut, you excrete 100 billion of them per day
  • A harmless strain of E. coli is one of the types
how do we fight disease how can we ever win in this sea of pathogens
How do we fight disease? How can we ever win in this sea of pathogens?
  • Non specific immunity
    • Skin, sweat, mucus, tears, stomach HCl, some types of white blood cells, ear wax, pH….
specific immunity
Specific immunity
  • Recognizing self from non-self
    • each foreign cell, protein, DNA has a unique identity that can be recognized as foreign by the body’s immune system
    • Self antigens
      • Mark your cells as “you”
    • Foreign antigens
      • Are not yours …..
  • Your immune system should be able to attack and destroy specific pathogens
white blood cells active in specific immunity
white blood cells active in specific immunity
  • B cells (lymphocytes)
    • Make antibodies
    • Antibodies bind to foreign antigens (pathogens)
  • T cells (lymphocytes)
    • coordinate immune response
    • Kill infected cells
vaccination immunization
Vaccination/Immunization
  • vaccine
    • Weakened or killed or piece of pathogen
    • Expose individual to vaccine and…..
    • B cells make antibodies to the vaccine (foreign antigen)

antibody

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B cells have “memory”
    • When body is exposed to foreign antigen (pathogen) years later, B cells rapidly produce large amounts of the correct antibody
  • Enough B cells to recognize every foreign antigen in nature!
  • Note: you can gain immunity by contracting disease itself
  • Some vaccines require boosters (example: tetanus)
vaccines
Vaccines
  • Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus (DPT) - bacteria
  • Chicken pox- virus
  • Polio - virus
  • Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) -virus
  • The flu (influenza) - virus
  • Hib - bacteria
  • Hepatitis B - virus
quick immunization facts
Quick Immunization Facts:
  • 3 million children die every year from diseases that are entirely preventable.
  • 30 million infants have no access to basic immunization each year.
  • One child can be fully immunized for $17.
in the future
In the future…….
  • Malaria
  • HIV
  • Lyme disease
  • Herpes