Pathogens cause disease
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Pathogens Cause Disease. Being Sick Can Really Get Ya !. Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet. Immunity- the resistance to a sickness. Infection- When a pathogen invades, multiplies, and causes harm. Disease. Internal Causes. External Causes. Infections by other organisms

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Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet
Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet

  • Immunity- the resistance to a sickness.

  • Infection- When a pathogen invades, multiplies, and causes harm.


Internal Causes

External Causes

Infections by other organisms

Environmental factors

Toxic pollutants - Ex: Smog, industrial smoke, cigarette smoke, harmful vapors, vehicle emissions, pesticides

  • Genetic diseases

    • Down’s syndrome

    • Albinism

    • Hemophilia

    • Sickle cell anemia

Pathogens cause disease


Microorganisms- Are small organisms that can only be seen with a microscope (viruses are not microorganisms!)


Viruses disease.

Viruses disease.

  • **They are NON LIVING**

    • Need a host to reproduce

    • Can not respond to changes in their environment

    • Does not grow

  • Contain genetic material

  • Come in many sizes and shapes

  • Very small, about 1/10,000 bacteria cells

Viruses multiply inside l iving c ells
Viruses Multiply Inside disease.Living Cells

  • Attachment-They attach to a host cell

  • Injection- Injects DNA into a cell

  • Production- Host cell makes copies of virus DNA

  • Assembly- New viruses assemble in cell

  • Release- Cell bursts releasing viruses

Harmful viruses cause huge problems
Harmful Viruses Cause Huge Problems disease.

  • Diseases caused by Viruses

    • Colds

    • AIDS

    • Polio

    • Small Pox

    • Diphtheria

    • Influenza

  • Can affect Plants, Animals, and Bacteria

Viruses and vaccines
Viruses and Vaccines disease.

  • There are no cures for viruses, doctors use vaccines to prevent people from getting sick from harmful viruses.

  • Vaccine- contain small amounts of weakened or dead pathogens that stimulate an immune response.

  • You can be vaccinated at any age and you need to stay up to date on your vaccinations in order to stay protected.

Vaccines disease.

Prevention disease.

Viruses disease.

Bacteria disease.

Bacteria disease.

  • **They are LIVING**

  • Prokaryotic (no nucleus)

  • Unicellular

  • Both autotrophic & heterotrophic

  • Disease causing bacteria are heterotrophic.

Bacteria disease.

  • Most are helpful (99%) few are harmful (1%)

  • Can be spread through food, water and air

  • Come in three different shapes

    • Spiral shaped

    • Rod shaped

    • Round shaped

Bacteria prevention and cures
Bacteria Prevention and Cures disease.

  • Can be prevented with vaccines and treated with antibiotics.

  • You can prevent the spread of bacteria

Bacteria disease.

Bacteria vs viruses
Bacteria Vs. Viruses disease.





Needs a host cell

Harmful and helpful

Smaller then a bacteria

  • Living

  • Vaccines & antibiotics

  • Harmful and helpful

  • Bigger than a virus

  • Has a cell wall

Fungi disease.

Fungi disease.

  • Eukaryotic (has a nucleus)

  • Heterotrophic

  • Unicellular and multicellular

  • Can be helpful and harmful

  • Can be used to make antibiotics

  • Many produce harmful chemicals

  • Can cause disease in humans

Fungal infections
Fungal infections disease.



Athlete’s foot

Under nail fungal infections

Thrush (in babies)


Creams and ointments

Antifungal medications

Parasites disease.

How parasites are spread
How Parasites Are Spread disease.

  • Insect bites

  • Animal feces

  • Walking barefoot

  • Handling raw meat and fish (not washing after)

  • Eating raw or undercooked pork, beef or fish

  • Eating contaminated raw fruits and vegetables

  • Eating meals prepared by a contaminated person

  • Drinking contaminated water

Examples disease.

  • Tapeworm

  • Hookworm

  • Lice

  • Malaria

  • Pinworm

Prevention disease.

  • Cook food entirely

  • Wash hands after handling raw meats

  • Wash fruits and vegetables

  • Don’t eat sand from sandboxes

  • Make sure water is safe to drink or boil it

  • Wash hands after cleaning kitty litter box

Cancer disease.

  • *When your own cells multiply uncontrollably, destroying healthy tissue*

  • Disorder that affects the cell cycle

  • Not a single disorder, rather a group of disorders

  • It is the uncontrolled division of cells

  • Can spread to various tissues, the cells are selfish

  • Cancer cells become “immortal” they continue to divide

  • Most are caused by cell mutations during a persons lifetime

  • Many are caused by harmful chemicals “carcinogens” (ex. nicotine, UV rays, radiation, x-rays)

  • Some inherit a tendency for a particular cancer

Cancer prevention
Cancer Prevention disease.

  • You can reduce the risk of getting a cancerous (malignant) tumor by:

    • Eating a healthy diet

    • Exercising regularly

    • Limiting alcohol

    • Maintaining a healthy weight

    • Minimizing your exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals

    • Not smoking or chewing tobacco

    • Reducing sun exposure, especially if you burn easily

    • Get screenings when possible

Cancer disease.