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Ch. 47—Animal Development. Fertilization. Fertilization. Fertilization. Fertilization. Once fertilization is complete. Animal Development. Cleavage —rapid mitotic cell division into smaller cells— blastomeres Solid ball of cells— morula

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Animal development
Animal Development

  • Cleavage—rapid mitotic cell division into smaller cells—blastomeres

  • Solid ball of cells—morula

  • Blastula produced when a cavity called blastocoel forms

  • Gastrulation—rearrangement of cells into 3 germ layers

blastomeres

Morula (solid ball of cells)


Blastocyst
Blastocyst

  • Blastula stage of mammalian embryos

  • Trophoblast layer enclosing the blastocoel

    • Chorion (outer embryonic layer)



Gastrulation
Gastrulation

  • Cells rearrange and fold inward at the blastopore to form a gastrula with three-germ layers:

    • Ectoderm (skin, nails, teeth)

    • Mesoderm (skeletal, muscular, excretory, circulatory, reproductive systems; blood, bone, and muscle)

    • Endoderm (epithelial lining of digestive, respiratory, excretory tracts; liver, pancreas)


Organogenesis
Organogenesis

  • Development of 3 germ layers into the beginnings of organs

    • Notochord—stiff dorsal skeletal rod (from mesoderm)

    • Neural plate—will become brain and spinal cord (from ectoderm)

    • Somites—blocks of mesoderm arranged along notochord; sign of segmentation


Amniotes
Amniotes

  • Amnion—fluid filled cavity; protects embryo

  • Allantois—disposal sac

  • Chorion—exchange gases

  • Yolk sac—provides nutrients


Eutherian mammals
Eutherian mammals


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