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WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & THE DEVELOPING COUNTIRES. Links. Introduction. WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. WTO,TRIPS. Patent Effects. Pb. Health Iss. Medicines. Suggestions. Conclusion. ‘There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?. I ntroduction. Links.

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wto trips patent rules developing countries

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES

&

THE DEVELOPING COUNTIRES

  • Links

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

‘There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?

Introduction

wto trips patent rules developing countries1

Links

Introduction

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

  • The WTO, TRIPS rules were introduced after continuous lobbying by trans-national corporations (TNCs).
  • The Agreement forces the member countries to grant at least 20-year patent protection in all fields of technology, including medicines.

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Introduction

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries2

Links

Introduction…..

Introduction

  • This enables already powerful developed countries pharmaceutical TNCs to join their market domination on a global scale.
  • At a time when millions of people are already unable to afford essential medicines.

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Introduction

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries3

Links

Introduction…..

Introduction

  • How the WTO patent rules work and how they will affect the price of medicines in developing countries
  • The negative effects of the rules,
  • Corporate interests & poverty reduction
  • Health crisis in developing countries
  • Need for governments to fill the gaps in pharmaceutical research
  • Who makes the decisions
  • Some recommendation for developing countries.

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Introduction

wto trips patent rules developing countries4

Links

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS & Patents

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

WTO

• The inter governmental organization

• Promote and liberalize the trade

• Basically an agreement that erects barriers • Undermines competition

• Protects private rights

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

WTO, TRIPS

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries5

Links

WTO, TRIPS & Patents……

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

TRIPS

• Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations (ACTN) and IPC, convinced the government that the ‘theft’ of US technology could be stopped only by creating international rules.

•The US TNCs skillfully enrolled their European and Japanese counterparts to put pressure on the other rich country governments, and the deal was done which laid the groundwork for what became TRIPS

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

WTO, TRIPS

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries6

Links

WTO, TRIPS & Patents……

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Patents

• A control or monopoly of some pharmaceutical business, granted by the country for a particular period of time for the commercial exploitation of a scientific or technological invention.

• The social function of patent is to stimulate innovation & it is applicable on either a product or a process.

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

WTO, TRIPS

wto trips patent rules developing countries7

Links

Patent’s effects on Developing countries

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

  • To talk about TRIPS some years ago was totally unknown; it was something from another planet to most of us.
  • Many developing countries were unaware of the implications of TRIPS.
  • Even now, many of the poorer countries are unaware to the commitments they made in 1994.

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Patent Effects

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries8

Links

Patent’s effects….

Introduction

  • The new patent rules, at present coming into

force in many developing countries

  • Introduce new global standards for all member

Countries

  • Forced member countries with a minimum

20-year patent term for all products, including

medicines and the processes by which these

are made.

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Patent Effects

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries9

Links

Patent’s effects….

Introduction

  • During this period, the prices of many medicines could be at least three and possibly more times higher than they would previously
  • It is a right of any country to override a patent and authorize third-party production of a medicine.
  • Some industrialized countries, like the United States, Japan, Denmark, Germany etc. are using political pressure and the threat of trade sanctions to force countries to enact laws of TRIPS, which exclude public-health issues. .

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Patent Effects

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries10

Links

Patent’s effects….

Introduction

  • All WTO member countries, even the poorest in the world, must be obedient with the whole of TRIPS by 2006, depending on their stage of development.
  • Otherwise, rich countries can take them to the WTO court, which can impose sanctions on those countries.
  • The Agreement is loaded against poor people of the poor countries. Majority of the TRIPS agreements were heavily biased in favor of the developed countries.

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Patent Effects

wto trips patent rules developing countries11

Links

Issue of Public Health

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

‘Many – even very poor people – can afford to buy drugs when the need is urgent and they are desperate. Our parents are just like all parents anywhere in the world. If a child is sick, they will do everything they can, to help that child. They will borrow money. They will sell a cow. They will sell the tin from their roof. I see this every day’.

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Dr Zafrullah Chowdhury, health activist in Bangladesh

Public Health

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries12

Links

Issue of Public Health….

Introduction

  • In this tech world, one in five of the world’s
  • population does not have access to health
  • services. Inadequate water supply and sanitation,
  • poor diet and the low quality of education are
  • major contributory factors to ill health.
  • Developing country governments could do

more to make medicines available to the poor but

the governments like the govt. of Pakistan

continue to spend far less on public health than

on other priorities, such as military budgets

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Public Health

wto trips patent rules developing countries13

Links

Medicine access, ….

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Price increases shall be a regular feature, with the introduction of &/or strengthening of patent protection in developing countries.

According to an estimate, prices could be three times or more during this time. For some products, prices could be ten or twenty times higher.

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Medicines

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries14

Links

Medicine access, ….

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

TRIPS will make it harder for domestic pharmaceutical industries

Prices could be three times or more during this time. For some products, prices could be ten or twenty times higher.

Incomes and employment in the sector will fall

Poor countries will become more dependent on expensive patented imports

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Medicines

wto trips patent rules developing countries15

Links

Govt. Role

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Allocation of resources would follow clearly defined public-health priorities.

Availability of cheaper and more easily used medicines.

Research priorities should build in a gender dimension and ensure that treatments for diseases that particularly affect women are investigated.

All countries, rich and poor are required to contribute annually based on their capacities, making it a genuine global initiative.

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Suggestions

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries16

Links

Pharmaceuticals Role

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Determining the availability and affordability of medicines

They develop and manufacture most of the world’s medicines, deciding what is produced, and how much it will sell for.

Corporate charity

Give EMR

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Suggestions

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries17

Links

Pakistan’s Role

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

Designing patent legislation to provide maximum protection for public-health needs

Pressure for IP protection that goes beyond TRIPS should be resisted

Involving health ministries, other government departments, and parliaments in decision-making on IP rules, including fundamental questions such as minimum patent length.

Encouraging broad public debate on the issues.

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Suggestions

CONTD..

wto trips patent rules developing countries18

Links

Conclusion

Introduction

WTO, TRIPS, PATENT RULES & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

WTO,TRIPS

Patent Effects

Pb. Health Iss

In my opinion TRIPS related agreements are

not suitable for majority of developing & all

poor countries to follow.

Pakistan has to strengthen its relation with

‘Like-Minded Group’ of developing

Countries comprising Cuba, Dominican

Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Honduras,

India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria,

Sri Lanka, and Uganda,

Medicines

Suggestions

Conclusion

Conclusion

THANKS