Sustaining aquatic biodiversity
1 / 59

Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity. Chapter 11. Core Case Study: A Biological Roller Coaster Ride in Lake Victoria. Loss of biodiversity and cichlids Nile perch: deliberately introduced Frequent algal blooms Nutrient runoff

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity' - geona

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Core case study a biological roller coaster ride in lake victoria
Core Case Study: A Biological Roller Coaster Ride in Lake Victoria

  • Loss of biodiversity and cichlids

  • Nile perch: deliberately introduced

  • Frequent algal blooms

    • Nutrient runoff

    • Spills of untreated sewage

    • Less algae-eating cichlids

Natural capital degradation the nile perch
Natural Capital Degradation: VictoriaThe Nile Perch

11 1 what are the major threats to aquatic biodiversity
11-1 What Are the Major Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity? Victoria

  • Concept 11-1 Aquatic species are threatened by habitat loss, invasive species, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation, all made worse by the growth of the human population.

We have much to learn about aquatic biodiversity
We Have Much to Learn about VictoriaAquatic Biodiversity

  • Greatest marine biodiversity

    • Coral reefs

    • Estuaries

    • Deep-ocean floor

  • Biodiversity is higher

    • Near the coast than in the open sea

    • In the bottom region of the ocean than the surface region

Human activities are destroying and degrading aquatic habitats
Human Activities Are Destroying and Degrading Aquatic Habitats

  • Habitat loss and degradation

    • Marine

      • Coastal

      • Ocean floor: effect of trawlers

    • Freshwater

      • Dams

      • Excessive water withdrawal

Invasive species are degrading aquatic biodiversity
Invasive Species Are Degrading After a TrawlerAquatic Biodiversity

  • Invasive species

    • Threaten native species

    • Disrupt and degrade whole ecosystems

  • Three examples

    • Water hyacinth: Lake Victoria (East Africa)

    • Asian swamp eel: waterways of south Florida

    • Purple loosestrife: indigenous to Europe

      • Treating with natural predators—a weevil species and a leaf-eating beetle—Will it work?

Science focus how carp have muddied some waters
Science Focus: How Carp Have Muddied Some Waters Loosestrife

  • Lake Wingra, Wisconsin (U.S.): eutrophic

    • Contains invasive species

      • Purple loosestrife and the common carp

  • Dr. Richard Lathrop

    • Removed carp from an area of the lake

      • This area appeared to recover

Lake wingra in madison wisconsin carp removal project
Lake LoosestrifeWingra in Madison, Wisconsin: Carp removal project

Population growth and pollution can reduce aquatic biodiversity
Population Growth and Pollution Can Reduce Aquatic Biodiversity

  • Nitrates and phosphates mainly from fertilizers enter water

    • Leads to eutrophication

  • Toxic pollutants from industrial and urban areas


  • (Midway Film)

Climate change is a growing threat
Climate Change Is a Growing Threat Biodiversity

  • Global warming: sea levels will rise and aquatic biodiversity is threatened

    • Coral reefs

    • Swamp some low-lying islands

    • Drown many highly productive coastal wetlands

    • Destroy highly populated cities

      • New Orleans, Louisiana, and New York City

Science focus protecting and restoring mangroves
Science Focus: Protecting and BiodiversityRestoring Mangroves

  • Protect and restore mangroves

    • Reduce the impact of rising sea levels

    • Protect against tropical storms and tsunamis

    • Cheaper than building concrete sea walls

    • Mangrove forests in Indonesia – 70% destroyed/degraded

Overfishing and extinction gone fishing fish gone
Overfishing and Extinction: Gone Fishing, Fish Gone Biodiversity

  • Marine and freshwater fish

    • Threatened with extinction by human activities more than any other group of species

    • Can cause 80% depletion of a target species in 10-15 years

  • Commercial extinction – when no longer profitable

  • Collapse of the cod fishery and its domino effect

  • Bycatch – 1/3 of annual fish catch by weight

Case study industrial fish harvesting methods
Case Study: Industrial Fish Harvesting Methods the Canadian Coast

  • Trawler fishing

  • Purse-seine fishing

  • Longlining

  • Drift-net fishing

11 2 how can we protect and sustain marine biodiversity
11-2 How Can We Protect and Sustain Marine Biodiversity? Marine Species

  • Concept 11-2 We can help to sustain marine biodiversity by using laws and economic incentives to protect species, setting aside marine reserves to protect ecosystems, and using community-based integrated coastal management.

Legal protection of some endangered and threatened marine species
Legal Protection of Some Endangered and Threatened Marine Species

  • Why is it hard to protect marine biodiversity?

    • Human ecological footprint and fishprint are expanding

    • Much of the damage in the ocean is not visible

    • The oceans are incorrectly viewed as an inexhaustible resource

    • Most of the ocean lies outside the legal jurisdiction of any country

International treaties
International treaties Species

  • 1972 – US Marine Mammal Protection Act

  • 1973 – US Endangered Species Act

  • 1975 - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

  • 1976 – US Whale Conservation and Protection Act

  • 1979 – Global Treaty on Migratory Species

  • 1995 – International Convention on Biodiversity

Case study protecting whales a success story so far
Case Study: Protecting Whales: A Success Story… So Far Species

  • Cetaceans: Toothed whales and baleen whales

  • 1946: International Whaling Commission (IWC) – set quotas, but no power to force compliance

  • 1970: U.S.

    • Stopped all commercial whaling, banned all imports of whale products

  • 1986: moratorium on commercial whaling

    • Pros

    • Cons

Examples of Cetaceans Species

Fig. 11-8a, p. 258

Examples of Cetaceans Species

Fig. 11-8b, p. 258

Economic incentives can be used to sustain aquatic biodiversity
Economic Incentives Can Be Used to Sustain Aquatic Biodiversity

  • Tourism

  • Economic rewards

    • EX. Reconciliation ecology – building coral reef around underwater restaurant

Case study holding out hope for marine turtles
Case Study: Holding Out Hope for BiodiversityMarine Turtles

  • Carl Safina, Voyage of the Turtle

    • Studies of the leatherback turtle

  • Threats to the leatherbacks

    • Trawlers

    • Pollution

    • Climate change

  • Communities protecting the turtles

Individuals matter creating an artificial coral reef in israel
Individuals Matter: Creating an Artificial Coral Reef in Israel

  • ReuvenYosef, Red Sea Star Restaurant

    • Coral reef restoration

    • Reconciliation ecology

    • Treatment of broken coral with antibiotics

Marine sanctuaries protect ecosystems and species
Marine Sanctuaries Protect Ecosystems and Species Israel

  • Offshore fishing

    • Exclusive economic zones

      • 370 km offshore of country

      • Within this area, foreign boats may only take fish with permission

    • High seas – beyond Exclusive economic zone

  • Law of the Sea Treaty

    • 36% of ocean surface and 90% of fish stocks

  • Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) - 1986 IUCN

Establishing a global network of marine reserves an ecosystem approach
Establishing a Global Network of Marine Reserves: An Ecosystem Approach

  • Marine reserves

    • Closed to

      • Commercial fishing

      • Dredging

      • Mining and waste disposal

    • Core zone

      • No human activity allowed

    • Less harmful activities allowed

      • E.g., recreational boating and shipping

Establishing a global network of marine reserves an ecosystem approach1
Establishing a Global Network of Marine Reserves: An Ecosystem Approach

  • Fully protected marine reserves work fast

    • Fish populations double

    • Fish size grows

    • Reproduction triples

    • Species diversity increase by almost one-fourth

    • Within 2-4 years

Kiribati Ecosystem Approach


Protecting marine biodiversity individuals and communities together
Protecting Marine Biodiversity: Individuals and Communities Together

  • Integrated Coastal Management

    • Community-based group to prevent further degradation of the ocean

11 3 how should we manage and sustain marine fisheries
11-3 How Should We Manage and Sustain Marine Fisheries? Together

  • Concept 11-3 Sustaining marine fisheries will require improved monitoring of fish populations, cooperative fisheries management among communities and nations, reduction of fishing subsidies, and careful consumer choices in seafood markets.

Estimating and monitoring fishery populations is the first step
Estimating and Monitoring Fishery Populations Is the First Step

  • Maximum sustained yield (MSY): traditional approach

  • Optimum sustained yield (OSY)

  • Multispecies management

  • Large marine systems:using large complex computer models

  • Precautionary principle

Government subsidies can encourage overfishing
Government Subsidies Can Encourage Overfishing Step

  • 2007: World Trade Organization

    • U.S. Proposed a ban on fishing subsidies

  • Reduce illegal fishing on the high seas and in coastal waters

    • Close ports and markets to such fishers

    • Check authenticity of ship flags

    • Prosecution of offenders

Some communities cooperate to regulate fish harvests
Some Communities Cooperate to Regulate Fish Harvests Step

  • Community management of the fisheries

  • Co-management of the fisheries with the government

Some countries use the marketplace to control overfishing
Some Countries Use the Marketplace to Control Overfishing Step

  • Individual transfer rights (ITRs)

    • Control access to fisheries

      • New Zealand and Iceland

      • Difficult to enforce

  • Problems with the ITR approach

    • Bycatch not reduced

    • Hard to regulate

Consumer choices can help to sustain fisheries and aquatic biodiversity
Consumer Choices Can Help to Sustain Fisheries and Aquatic Biodiversity

  • 1997: Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), London

    • Supports sustainable fishing

    • Certifies sustainably produced seafood

  • Manage global fisheries more sustainably

    • Individuals

    • Organizations

    • Governments


    • 2006 – WalMart’s pledge – did they keep it?

11 4 how should we protect and sustain wetlands
11-4 How Should We Protect and BiodiversitySustain Wetlands?

  • Concept 11-4 To maintain the ecological and economic services of wetlands, we must maximize preservation of remaining wetlands and restoration of degraded and destroyed wetlands.

Coastal and inland wetlands are disappearing around the world
Coastal and Inland Wetlands Are Disappearing around the World

  • Highly productive wetlands

  • Provide natural flood and erosion control

  • Maintain high water quality; natural filters

  • Effect of rising sea levels

We can preserve and restore wetlands
We Can Preserve and Restore Wetlands World

  • Laws for protection

  • Mitigation banking

    • Ecologists argue this as a last resort

Individuals matter restoring a wetland
Individuals Matter: Restoring a Wetland World

  • Jim Callender: 1982

  • Scientific knowledge + hard work =

    a restored wetland in California, U.S.

  • Marsh used again by migratory fowl

Case study can we restore the florida everglades
Case Study: Can We Restore the Florida Everglades? World

  • “River of Grass”: south Florida, U.S.

  • Since 1948: damaged

    • Drained

    • Diverted

    • Paved over

    • Nutrient pollution from agriculture

    • Invasive plant species

  • 1947: Everglades National Park unsuccessful protection project

Case study can we restore the florida everglades1
Case Study: Can We Restore the Florida Everglades? World

  • 1970s: political haggling

  • 1990: Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)

    • Restore the curving flow of most of the Kissimmee River

    • Remove canals and levees in strategic locations

    • Flood 240 sq. km farmland to create artificial marshes

      • Goal?

Case study can we restore the florida everglades2
Case Study: Can We Restore the Florida Everglades? World

  • Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) cont…

    • Create reservoirs and underground water storage areas

    • Build new canals, reservoirs and efficient pumping systems

  • Why isn’t this plan working?

11 5 how can protect and sustain freshwater lakes rivers and fisheries
11-5 How Can Protect and Sustain Freshwater Lakes, Rivers, and Fisheries?

  • Concept 11-5 Freshwater ecosystems are strongly affected by human activities on adjacent lands, and protecting these ecosystems must include protection of their watersheds.

Case study can the great lakes survive repeated invasions by alien species
Case Study: Can the Great Lakes Survive Repeated Invasions by Alien Species?

  • Collectively, world’s largest body of freshwater

  • Invaded by at least 162 nonnative species

    • Sea lamprey

    • Zebra mussel

      • Good and bad

    • Quagga mussel

    • Asian carp

Managing river basins is complex and controversial
Managing River Basins Is Complex by Alien Species?and Controversial

  • Columbia River: U.S. and Canada

    • Dam system

    • Pros and cons

  • Snake River: Washington state, U.S.

    • Hydroelectric dams

    • Pros and cons

Natural capital ecological services of rivers
Natural Capital: Ecological Services by Alien Species?of Rivers

We can protect freshwater ecosystems by protecting watersheds
We Can Protect Freshwater Ecosystems by Protecting Watersheds

  • Freshwater ecosystems protected through

    • Laws

    • Economic incentives

    • Restoration efforts

  • Wild rivers and scenic rivers

  • Sustainable management of freshwater fishes

11 6 what are the priorities for sustained biodiversity ecosystem services
11-6 What Are the Priorities for Sustained Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services?

  • Concept 11-6 Sustaining the world’s biodiversity and ecosystem services will require mapping terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity, maximizing protection of undeveloped terrestrial and aquatic areas, and carrying out ecological restoration projects worldwide.

We need to set priorities for protecting biodiversity ecosystem services
We Need to Set Priorities for Protecting Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services

  • 2002: Edward O. Wilson (The Future of Life)

    • Complete the mapping of the world’s terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity

    • Keep old-growth forests intact; cease their logging

    • Identify and preserve hotspots and deteriorating ecosystem services that threaten life

    • Ecological restoration projects

    • Make conservation financially rewarding