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Aquatic Biodiversity. Nonindigenous species Threatened and endangered species. Outline. Determinants of community structure Measuring biodiversity High diverse ecosystems Role of introduced species Extinctions and threatened species. What is community structure?.

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aquatic biodiversity

Aquatic Biodiversity

Nonindigenous species

Threatened and endangered species

outline
Outline
  • Determinants of community structure
  • Measuring biodiversity
  • High diverse ecosystems
  • Role of introduced species
  • Extinctions and threatened species
what is community structure
What is community structure?
  • Different sites have different compositions of species
  • If communities have structure, then they must be more than a group of randomly selected individuals of different species
  • Is it random? Or is it not? What evidence do we have?
  • Species pool
assessing community structure
Assessing Community Structure
  • Species Pool
    • What determines this?
  • Species Richness
    • What determines this?
  • Evenness
measuring diversity
Measuring Diversity
  • Shannon-Weaver Index
    • S=total number of species
    • Pj is proportion of total population that is species j
  • Evenness
    • E=H’/lnS
types of diversity
Types of diversity
  • α diversity: within-habitat
  • β diversity: between-habitat
effect of latitude
Effect of latitude
  • Predatory Gastropods
  • A) molluscs
  • B) fish
diverse aquatic ecosystems
Diverse Aquatic Ecosystems
  • African rift lakes
    • Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi – cichlid species look similar but are genetically dissimilar
introduced aquatic species
Introduced aquatic species
  • Biotic groups
    • How many species?
    • Examples?
      • How did they get introduced?
      • What is being done to control them?
brook trout
Brook trout

Stocked for sportfishing since the 1800s

Arizona in 1920

Missouri from 1879 to 1914

round goby
Round Goby

Introduced to Great Lakes in 1990s

via freighter ballast

Has undergone population explosion

grass carp
Grass carp
  • Stocked for biological control of vegetation.
  • First imported in 1963 to aquaculture facilities in Alabama and Arkansas.
  • The first release into open waters took place in Arkansas, when fish escaped the Fish Farming Experimental Station
  • Spread rapidly
    • widely scattered research projects
    • stockings by federal, state, and local government agencies
    • legal and illegal interstate transport and release by individuals, etc.
  • Stocking of grass carp as a biological control against nuisance aquatic plants in ponds and lakes continues.
    • thousands of grass carp are reared and sold by fish farmers in Missouri and Arkansas
grass carp indirect effects
Grass Carp indirect effects
  • better growth of rainbow trout due to increases in phytoplankton and zooplankton production
  • also higher predation on rainbow trout by cormorants due to lack of cover, and changes in diet, densities, and growth of native fishes.
  • Increases in phytoplankton populations is a secondary effect
    • A single grass carp can digest only about half of the approximately 45 kg of plant material that it consumes each day. Nondigested material causes algal blooms, which can reduce water clarity and decrease oxygen levels (Bain 1993).
  • may carry several parasites and diseases known to be transmissible to native fishes
    • Asian tapeworm; thus responsible indirectly for the infection of the endangered woundfin
triploid grass carp
Triploid grass carp
  • Considered to be sterile and incapable of reproduction
    • some researchers have questioned the sterility of triploids
    • can produce some viable gametes, but the proportion of such gametes is extremely low Nevertheless, techniques used to induce triploidy are not always totally effective and every
  • Triploid grass carp are indistinguishable in external morphology from normal (fertile) diploids