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Aim: What is an organic compound?. Do Now: what are the key components to organic chemistry? Homework: Text Book Pg 632 – 648 Questions 1-5 . Organic Chemistry Unit IX. I. Organic Compounds : defined. Contains carbon which must have four bonds Have covalent bonds.

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aim what is an organic compound

Aim: What is an organic compound?

Do Now: what are the key components to organic chemistry?

Homework: Text Book Pg 632 – 648 Questions 1-5

i organic compounds defined
I. Organic Compounds: defined
  • Contains carbon which must have four bonds
  • Have covalent bonds.
  • Have low melting points.
  • Have low boiling points.
  • React slowly because of their complex bonding.
  • May have symmetrical shapes (i.e.: tetrahedral) therefore are soluble in non-polar solvents.
  • Form large molecules with triple, double and single bonds.
a types of organic compounds
a) Types of Organic Compounds
  • Hydrocarbons

any compound that contains carbon and hydrogen

1. Alkanes – hydrocarbons that contains all single bonds among the carbons in any chain

-Formula For AlkaneCnH2n+2

complete structural formulas
Complete Structural Formulas

Show the bonds between each of the atoms

H H

 

H  C  H H C H

 

H H

CH4 , methane

more alkanes
More Alkanes

H H Condensed Structural Formulas

H C C H CH3 CH3

H H Ethane

H H H

H C C C H CH3 CH2 CH3

H H H Propane

alkane family
Alkane Family

Name # carbons Structural Formula

Methane 1 CH4

Molecular Formula

CH4

alkane family continued
Alkane Family Continued

Name # carbons Structural Formula

Ethane 2 CH3CH3

Molecular Formula

C2H6

alkane family continued1
Alkane Family Continued

Name # carbons Structural Formula

Propane 3 CH3CH2CH3

Molecular Formula

C3H8

other alkanes
Other Alkanes

Name # carbons Structural Formula

Hexane 6 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Heptane 7 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Octane 8 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Nonane 9 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Decane 10 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

answer the following
Answer the following

A. Draw butane?

H H H H

H C C C C H

H H H H

  • What is its molecular formula?

C4H10

b alkenes unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one double bond among the carbons in any chain
b) Alkenes – unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one double bond among the carbons in any chain.

C2H4

Ethene

C3H6

Propene

Butene

C4H8

answer the following1
Answer the Following

What is the molecular formula of pentene ?

C5H10

Why?

H H H H H

C= C-C-C- C H

H H H H

c alkynes unsaturated hydrocarbons with one triple bond among the carbons in any chain
c) Alkynes-unsaturated hydrocarbons with one triple bond among the carbons in any chain

Ethyne

(acetylene

C2H2

Propyne

C3H4

naming alkenes and alkynes
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes

When the carbon chain has 4 or more C atoms, number the chain to give the lowest number to the double or triple bond.

1 2 3 4

CH2=CHCH2CH3

1-butene

CH3CH=CHCH3

2-butene

CH3CCCH3

2-butyne

saturated and unsaturated compounds
Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds
  • Saturated compounds (alkanes) have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon atom
  • Unsaturated compounds have fewer hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon chain than alkanes
  • Unsaturated compounds contain double or triple bonds
summary of hydrocarbons
Summary of Hydrocarbons
  • Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes are members of a homologous series where each successive member has one more carbon and two more hydrogens
  • If you arrange the series in alphabetical order

which comes first , second and third ?

Alkane – single bonds

Alkene – double bond

Alkyne – triple bond

using the summary and the reference tables answer the following
Using the summary and the reference tables answer the following

1. Given CH4, C2H6,what is the next member ?

C3H8

2. Which of the following has a double bond ?

C4H10, C4H8 or C4H6

3. Which of the following is Pentyne ?

C5H12 C3H4 C5H8

4. Which of the following is a saturated hydrocarbon ?

C5H12 C3H4 C5H8

5. Draw 2-butene.

C-C=C-C plus the Hs

answer the following2
Answer the following:
  • What is the formula of Butene ?

C4H8

What is the formula of Hexane

C6H14

What is the formula of Butyne ?

C4H6

Which of the following is an alkene ?

C4H10 C4H6 or C4H8

slide22

d) Benzene Series

  • 1. Characteristics:
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon (ring structures)
  • Contains alternating double bonds
  • Displays chemical resonance
  • Highly nonpolar due to the depolarization of shared electron (equally distributed).
  • Formula: CnH2n-6
  • Examples: Benzene, Toluene, Napthalene
slide23

Benzene

Toluene

Napthalene