distributed location aware transmission for ad hoc networks bey ling su 1 29 2004 n.
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Distributed Location-aware Transmission for Ad-Hoc Networks Bey-Ling Su 1/29/2004. Outline. Features for Ad-Hoc Networks Node Location Collection by Single-Flooding The Modified Dijkstra Algorithm Efficient Unicast ,Multicast , and Broadcast Transmission Handling for Node Re-organization

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outline
Outline

Features for Ad-Hoc Networks

Node Location Collection by Single-Flooding

The Modified Dijkstra Algorithm

Efficient Unicast ,Multicast , and Broadcast

Transmission Handling for Node Re-organization

Conclusion

features for ad hoc networks
Features for Ad-Hoc Networks
  • Wireless network has seen a rapid expansion of visibility due to the proliferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices and the network community's interest in mobile computing.
  • No fixed infrastructure available, and have no predetermined organization of available links.
  • Ad hoc is a multi–layer networking (physical, mac, network, transportation…)
features for ad hoc networks1
Features for Ad-Hoc Networks
  • The networking layer needs to calculatepaths in a way that maintains efficiency when links change and bandwidth is at a premium.
  • A key assumption is that not all nodes can directly communicate with each other
  • Rapid changes in connectivity and link characteristics are introduced due to node mobility and power control practices
  • Applications need to be designed to handle frequent disconnection and reconnection with peer applications
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Fig. 1: A sample graph (ad hoc network)

node loca tion collection by single flooding
Node Location Collection by Single-Flooding
  • Assume there are n nodes in a wireless ad-hoc network and the location of each node is located by a GPS initially
  • The traditional localization method needs to flood n times (one for each node) to let every node to get the location information of all n nodes
  • Our single-flooding algorithm reduces the flooding times from n to 1
node loca tion collection by single flooding cont
Node Location Collection by Single-Flooding (cont.)

The Single-Flooding Algorithm

Input: The location info of each node

Output: The root node builds up a location table and a distance table

  • Initially, arbitrarily select a node as the root-node in the network, and broadcast RREQ including the root id to other n-1 nodes
  • Each of the n-1 nodes follows the previous broadcasting path to send its id and GPS location back to the root-node
node loca tion collection by single flooding cont1
Node Location Collection by Single-Flooding (cont.)

The Single-Flooding Algorithm

  • Once the root-node receives the ids and GPS location info from all the other n-1 nodes, it creates a location table (see Table 1)
  • Using the position table to calculate a distance table (see Table 2) to represent the network as a graph
  • Root node sends the position table and distance table to all other n-1 nodes by using the shortest paths which were calculated by the following Modified Dijkstra Algorithm
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(Position Table &

Distance Table)

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Fig. 2. The root node sends Position Table and Distance Table to all the other n-1 nodes by following the shortest path table.

the modified dijkstra algorithm
The Modified Dijkstra Algorithm
  • Initially, root node uses the modified Dijkstra algorithm to find the shortest paths to all the other n-1 nodes rather than flooding.
  • The shortest path means that a source node transmits packages to a destination node will choose the furthest node within its transmission range to transfer packages and skip other intermediate nodes (see Fig. 3)
  • The root node will go through the least-hop path to reach the destination node and to avoid unnecessary package passing in a network.
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1

transmission

Range k

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Fig. 3. Node 1 transmits the packages to node 7, by using the modified Dijkstra algorithm, will take the furthest path from node 1 to node 6 rather than from node 1 to node 3.

slide14
The Modified Dijkstra Algorithm

For i=1 to n do

S(i)=0 ;

If Cost (v, i) > K

then Dist (i) <- Cost (v, i)

else Dist(i) <- ∞ (* distance longer than the

transmission range k, see Table 3 *)

End (* If *)

S(v) <- 1 ; Dist(v) <- 0 ; num <- 2

While num<n do

Choose u : Dist(u)= Min{Dist (w)} at s(w)=0

S(u) <- 1 ; num <- num + 1

For all w with s(w) =0 do

Dist(w) <- Min{ Dist(w) , Dist(u) + Cost (u,w)}

End (* of For all *)

End (* of While loop *)

End (* of Algorithm *)

the efficient unicast multicast broadcast
The Efficient Unicast, Multicast & Broadcast

Table 4. Broadcast: Assume the transmission radius k=5. Initially, node 1 sends packets to all other n-1 nodes according to the following shortest-path table after executed the Modified Dijkstra Algorithm.

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Fig. 4. Broadcast: assume node 1 sends packets to all other n-1 nodes according to the following shortest-path table after ran the modified Dijkstra algorithm.

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Fig. 5. Unicast: From the above path table, node 1 can send packets to any other node easily. Assume node 1 sends packets to node 8.

the efficient unicast multicast broadcast cont
The Efficient Unicast, Multicast & Broadcast (cont.)
  • After executed the Dijkstra algorithm to get the shortest path from one node to all other n-1 nodes.
  • We can simultaneous to unicast, multicast and broadcast efficiently on demand.
  • For multicast and broadcast, we take the repetition paths only once.
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Multicast node

Efficient path

Node 4

1->3->4

Node 6

1->3->6

Node 7

1->3->6->7

Node 8

1->3->6->8

Table 5. Multicast: Assume the source node is node 1 and the multicast nodes are node 4, 6, 7, and 8

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Fig. 6. Multicast: From above table, we get the following graph

the efficient way to pass packets
The Efficient Way to Pass Packets
  • Originally, each node in the network receives the position table and distance table from root node through the shortest paths rather than flooding.
  • In this method, it only needs one flooding. Afterward all nodes transmitting packets are not necessary to use flooding.
the efficient way to pass packets cont
The Efficient Way to Pass Packets (cont.)
  • At beginning, a node does nothing unless it wants to transmit the packets to other nodes. Only in this case, it needs to execute the Modified Dijkstra Algorithm to get the shortest-path table.
  • Each node in the network is easy to unicast, multicast and broadcast simultaneously, according to the shortest-path table.
transmission handling for node re organization
Transmission Handling for Node Re-organization
  • Each node has an Added List and a Removed List for handling the changes in the network.
  • If one node added, it sends RREQ to its neighbors for requesting the Position Table and Distance Table.
  • After getting the two Tables, the added node executes the Modified Dijkstra Algorithm to send its position to other n-1 nodes by using the shortest-path table rather than flooding.
  • A node receives the added node information, then appends the node’s info to the Added List.
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Node 9 get position table and distance table and two lists

From neighbor nodes

Other n-1 nodes

Add node 9 into

Their Added list

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Node 9 sends its

Position to all other

N-1 nodes by running

MDA.

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Fig. 6. An added node 9

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Fig. 7. Node 3 moves : node 3 informs the other n-1 nodes through the shortest-path table

transmission handling for node re organization cont
Transmission Handling for Node Re-organization (cont.)
  • If one node removed, it will inform other nodes by using the shortest-path table.
  • If the other node receives the removed node info, then it appends the info to the removed node list.
  • If any node wants to send packets to other nodes, it has to check its transmission path including any removed node. If yes, it needs to execute the Modified Dijkstra Algorithm. Otherwise, it uses its previous shortest-path table.
  • If any node wants to send packets to a node in the added list, it needs to execute the Modified Dijkstra Algorithm. Otherwise, it uses its previous shortest-path table.
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Conclusion –

contributions of this paper

  • Using single-flooding approach to collect node locations and to create the position table and distance table of the ad-hoc network.
  • Using the modified Dijkstra algorithm to distribute the position table and distance table to each node in the ad-hoc network efficiently instead of the traditional n-flooding strategy.
conclusion contributions of this paper cont
Conclusion –contributions of this paper (cont.)
  • Using a shortest path table for each node to transmit packets with less hops.
  • Each node could execute unicast, multicast and broadcast simultaneously according to the shortest path table.
  • Handling moving-nodes easily by using the shortest-path table instead of flooding.