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Cognitive Development. Piaget’s Sensorimotor Period. Piaget believed children’s cognitive development occurred in stages. The stages were brought on by biological maturation and environmental triggers The stages are: Sensorimotor (0 – 2 yrs ) Pre-operational (2 – 7 yrs.)

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cognitive development

Cognitive Development

Piaget’s Sensorimotor Period

slide2
Piaget believed children’s cognitive development occurred in stages. The stages were brought on by biological maturation and environmental triggers The stages are:
    • Sensorimotor (0 – 2 yrs)
    • Pre-operational (2 – 7 yrs.)
    • Concrete Operational (7 – 11 yrs).
    • Formal Operational (11+ yrs.)
sensorimotor period
Sensorimotor Period
  • In infancy, children are in the sensorimotor period. At this stage, children learn through the senses. Cognitive development is built through the infant’s interactions with the environment.
  • There are six substages.
substage 1 the use of reflexes
Substage 1: The use of reflexes
  • Age range: Birth to 1 month
  • Infants are born with inherited reflexes and it is through the reflexes that the infant begins to make meaning and build understanding.
  • Reflexes are highly stereotyped automatic behaviours that occur in response to specific stimuli.
slide5
Reflexes include:
    • Root reflex: when the corner of the baby’s mouth is stroked or touched the baby will turn toward the sensation and open his/her mouth. This helps the baby find the nipple to begin feeding.
    • Suck reflex: when the roof of the baby’s mouth is touch the baby will start to suck in order to feed.
    • Moro reflex: when the baby is startled, the baby will throw back the head, extend the arms and legs, cry, then pull the arms and legs back towards the body.
slide6
Reflexes continued:
    • Tonic neck reflex: when the baby’s head is turned to one side, the arm on that side stretches out and the opposite arm bends up at the elbow.
    • Grasp reflex: when the baby’s palm is stroked the fingers will close around the object.
    • Babinski reflex: when the baby’s foot is firmly stroked, the big toe will bend back toward the top of the foot and the other toes will fan out.
    • Step reflex: when the baby is held upright, it will take steps or dance if the feet are touching a solid surface.
substage 2 primary circular reactions
Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions
  • Age Range: 1 – 4 months
  • Circular reactions are repetitive behaviours. Primary circular reactions are behaviour that occur unexpectantly from reflexes. A reflex will engage the child in some form of behaviour. If the child finds that behaviour pleasurable, the child will repeat the behaviour.
  • Example: thumb sucking
substage 3 secondary circular reactions
Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions
  • Age range: 4-8 months
  • These reactions do not originate with reflexes, but are caused by unintentional occurrences, from the child interacting with the environment.
  • Example: an infant accidently hits a mobile above his/her head. The mobile spins and catches the baby’s attention. If they like it, the child will try to hit the mobile again.
substage 4 coordination of s econdary c ircular reactions
Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions
  • Age range: 8 -12 months
  • At this stage, infants are starting to understand that one circular reaction can be used to get another circular reaction. Behaviours that the child displays are not for a reason. At this stage, the child begins to gain a sense of cause and effect.
  • Example: The child will move a blanket to get to a rattle.
object permanence
Object Permanence
  • Before substage 4, the infant doesn’t understand that an object out-of-sight continues to exist.
  • When object permanence occurs, the child realizes that the object still exists and will start to look for it.
  • Children who have achieved object permanence often demonstrate it through games like peek-a-boo.
slide13
Developing object permanence:
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSGWh2CWJnA
  • Object permanence achieved:
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQAMRlGyIXM
substage 5 tertiary circular reactions
Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions
  • Age range: 12-18 months
  • Infants will complete actions deliberately and with purpose. If the action is pleasurable, the child will repeat the action with some variation.
  • Example: A child beats on a pot with a wooden spoon, then beats on the floor, and finally on the refrigerator.
substage 6 coordination of tertiary circular reactions
Substage 6: Coordination of Tertiary Circular Reactions
  • Age Range: 18 -24 months
  • Children begin to internalize behaviours and began to build mental symbols. This stage is when children are able to participate in pretend play.
  • Example: A child is pretending to cook and needs to “mix the ingredients” in a bowl. However, the child doesn’t have a spoon, so the child pretends to use a spoon or will use a similar object.
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