Cognitive Development. S00057700. By : Jamie O’Brien. What is cognitive development?. Expressed by (Berk. 2004) as “children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world.”
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By : Jamie O’Brien
1: Sensori-motor period (0-2 years)
Actions are performed on the world in terms of their five senses. Initially the child’s behaviour is governed by simple reflexes. This stage is sub-staged into six parts.
The child cannot understand that the toy is still there even though it has been covered by a sheet of paper
Substage 1:(0-1 months) modification of reflexes
Substage 2:(1-4 months) primary circular reactions
Substage 3:(4-8 months) secondary circular functions
Substage 4:(8-12 months) coordination of secondary reactions attainment of object performance
Substage 5:(12-18 months) tertiary circular reactions
Substage 6:(18-24 months) representational thought
2: Pre-operational stage ( 2-7 years)
3: Concrete operations period (7-11 years)
According to Piaget, this stage is when children begin to understand the relationship between things in the world but still cannot think in abstract terms. Although their thinking has greater flexibility, they are capable of operational groupings only with concrete objects.
if you have two five inch sticks laid parallel to each other, then move one of them a little, the child may believe that the moved stick is now longer than the other.
4: Formal operations period (11+ years)
The individual moves from a less to a more mature level of functioning. McGurk(1975, p. 39) notes that ‘[t]he hallmark of this stage is the child’s ability to reason abstractly without relying upon concrete situations or events.’
A child in middle childhood will know that If you pour the mild from the short, fat glass into the tall, skinny glass, that there is the same amount of milk as before, despite the dramatic increase in mild-level!
“Jean Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896 .” (C.George Bueree para.1, 2006)
Piaget proved to quite accurate in his study of cognitive development as this graph shows. The only problem with his study is that it was biased. Most of his experiments were performed on his own children and not on a variety of different children from all walks of life.
For him, the individual’s development is a result of his or her culture. Development, in Vygotsky´s theory, applies mainly to mental development, such as thought, language and reasoning process. These abilities were understood to develop through social interactions with others (especially parents) and therefore represented the shared knowledge of the culture.
“Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of ideas. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals (Vygotsky, 1978, p.57).” (Sólrún B. Kristinsdóttir, para.1, 2001)