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Cognitive development. Piaget. Jean Piaget. Wanted to know how children use intelligence Observed his own three children Came up with a stage approach Every stage approach has 3 assumptions Stages must be in order and each must build on the previous

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jean piaget
Jean Piaget
  • Wanted to know how children use intelligence
  • Observed his own three children
  • Came up with a stage approach
  • Every stage approach has 3 assumptions
    • Stages must be in order and each must build on the previous
    • Progression is closely liked to ages changes
    • Stage progression is sign posted by major steps and changes

Piaget video

jean piaget1
Jean Piaget
  • Cognitive development occurs as we adapt to the changing world around us
  • He described this development as ADAPTATION
  • The continuous process of using the environment to learn and learning to adjust to changes in the environment
  • Adaptation occurs though 2 closely related process Assimilation and Accomodation
assimilation
Assimilation
  • Process of taking new information and fitting it into already existing categories and mental idea of things
  • The infant uses pre existing information it has to work out what a new object is and how to use it.

Adaptation video

what is this
What is this?

Playing with the hammer then the wrench

Give 2 of your own examples of Assimilation

accommodation
Accommodation
  • refers to changing an existing mental idea in order to fit new information.
  • More advanced then assimilation
  • Involves restructuring mental ideas, so it can accommodate for the new stimulus.
  • This done by either creating new schema or changing the existing idea of what old schema is
stage 1 sensorymotor
Stage 1: Sensorymotor
  • 0-2 Years
  • Coordinating sensory input with motor actions
object permanence
Object permanence
  • Understanding that objects still exist even after our senses can no longer detect them.
  • Happens gradually and may not be fully acquired until 18 months

Object permanence video

goal directed behaviour
Goal Directed Behaviour
  • Behaviourwhich is carried out with a particular purpose in mind.
  • They begin to work out how to obtain things they want
  • Eg. the infant learns to reach objects on a table by pulling themselves up at the side of the table.

Goal Directed behaviour video

stage 2 preoperational
Stage 2: Preoperational
  • Age 2 - 7 Years Old
  • Have a greater ability to imagine things and represent things in their mind
symbolic thinking
Symbolic thinking
  • The ability to use symbols such as words or pictures to represent object, places or events
  • This is evident as they begin to pretend play more often. eg using a stick as a sword or telephone.
egocentrism
Egocentrism
  • An inability to see things from another persons perspective.
  • ★Christmas Presents
  • ★Brothers and sisters
  • Over this period children become decentered and they develop the ability to things from another’s perspective

Egocentrism Video

conservation
Conservation
  • Even though the shape of an object may be changed the total amount remains the same.
  • Children at the preoperational stage do not understand this

Conservation Video

centration
Centration
  • The tendency to focus on only one aspect of an object or problem at a time while neglecting the other aspects

Centration Video

stage 3 concrete operational
Stage 3: Concrete Operational
  • Age 7 – 12
  • Children can figure our relationships between objects provided the objects are physically present.
reversibility
Reversibility
  • Children can mentally undo their activities.
  • Ability to trace a subject back to its original roots
  • The juice in a cup activity
  • Elephants have big ears, Your teacher has big ears therefore your teacher is an elephant

Reversibility video

decentration
Decentration
  • A child can focus on more than one object at once.
hierarchical classification
Hierarchical classification
  • New problem solving capacity
  • Requires materials to be classified into different classes
stage 4 formal operational
Stage 4: Formal Operational
  • Age: 12 Years old and over
  • Can think about and solve abstract problems in a logical manner
  • Many people never reach this level.
  • Many people struggle with these concepts and often resort to concrete thinking when things get too abstract.
abstract
Abstract
  • a way of thinking that does not rely on being able to see or visualize things in order to understand concepts
  • What is honesty?
  • What is love?
  • Does God exist?
  • Why do we ethics?
  • What is good and bad?
logical thinking
Logical Thinking
  • they are able todevelop strategies to solve problems, identify a range of possible solutions to problems, develop hypotheses (predictions and explanations) and systematically test solutions.
  • Deductive reasoning is another name for this

Deductive Reasoning Video