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South Africa and Apartheid

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  1. South Africa and Apartheid

  2. History of South Africa (pre-20th century) • Colonized by Dutch settlers called Boers in 1600’s • Britain invades and controls coast (1800’s) • Forces Boers north, come into conflict with Bantu • Britain gives South Africa self-rule in 1910 • Controlled by British and Dutch • “Afrikaners” were a small minority of the population (16%) • Blacks comprised a majority of the population (70%)

  3. Origins of Apartheid • Early 1900’s – Laws passed to legalize separation of races • 1948 – Nationalist Party (Afrikaners) established legal system of apartheid • “the rigid separation of races” • Classify people according to 3 races • Black, white, “colored” (mixed, Indian, or Asian) • Passed laws to keep people separated • Took away rights of non-whites

  4. Major Apartheid Laws • Population Registration Act • Required all S. Africans to be classified into 3 categories: Bantu, White and colored (mixed) • Bantu Authorities Act • Established separate areas based on race • Blacks were made citizens of one homeland • “Pass Laws” • Required blacks to have a pass to move into the white areas

  5. Required Passbook

  6. Segregated beaches…

  7. …and segregated benches

  8. Bantustans (Homelands) • Officially designated in the 1950’s • Means “land” (stan) of the “bantu” (tribe of S. Africa) • Originally were “reserves” for separating blacks from whites before 1948 • As many as 3.5 million black South Africans were forced to move to these areas during 60s, 70s and 80s • Bantustans were encouraged to be independent states; blacks would be citizens of these instead of S. Africa • Goal was to make whites the majority in the territory of South Africa

  9. Bantustans

  10. Apartheid Statistics

  11. The Struggle Against Apartheid • The African National Congress (ANC) • South African group dedicated to ending apartheid • Used non-violent tactics • Umkhonto we Sizwe – • A more militant group within the ANC

  12. The Struggle Against Apartheid • Anti-Apartheid leaders • Desmond Tutu – early leader; preached non-violence • Nelson Mandela – imprisoned for 27 years;