Apartheid and South Africa
LEQ’s • How did European colonialism impact South Africa? • What was apartheid and what impact did it have on South Africa? • What events lead to the end of apartheid in South Africa? • What role did Nelson Mandela and Willem de Klerk play in the end of apartheid?
Your Turn ... Contrast life during apartheid Whites Non-Whites http://www5.unitedstreaming.com/index.cfm
apartheid Literally means “apartness” in Dutch A policy of segregation and discrimination against non-white groups in the Republic of South Africa
History of Apartheid • 1600’s – Dutch arrive (known as Afrikaners or Boers) • 1900 - Discovery of diamonds • English invasion • Uneasy power-sharing between the two • 1904’s – Afrikaner National Party gained majority • They invented apartheid
1948 Enactment of Apartheid Laws • Racial discrimination became law • Prohibited marriage between races • Sanctioning of “white-only’’ jobs • Separate beaches, buses, hospitals, schools, parks, and even park benches • Non-whites stripped of voting rights • Non-whites not allowed to run business in white-only areas • Non-whites “resettled”
1950Population Registration Act • 3 categories • White – “obviously white” • Black – pencil test • Colored – of mixed decent • Based on • Appearance • Social acceptance • Descent • Required to carry pass books – 16 years old
Main purposeof the Population Registry • To control the movement of black South Africans • Pass books • Given at age of 16 • Identification • History of government opposition • Failure to produce pass book resulted in arrest and jail
1951Bantu Authorities Act • Created “Homelands”
A girl looking through the window of her home in one of the many homelands.
1953Public Safety Act & Criminal Law Amendment Act • States of emergency • Police permitted to use violence against protesters • Penalties for protesting • Heavy fines • Imprisonment without trial • Those who were tried, sentenced to death, banished, or imprisoned for life • Whippings and beatings
1960Sharpeville • Refused to carry passes • Government declared state of emergency • 69 died • 187 wounded • Lasted 156 days
INDEPENDENCE! • Independence of South Africa from the British Empire was established by the white minority in 1961.
1971Black Homeland Citizenship Act • Changed status of citizenship – all non-whites were now “citizens” of their “homeland” and NOT South Africa • Therefore, no longer citizens of South Africa • Aliens in their own country • Needed “passports” to travel within South Africa
Soweto UprisingJune 16th, 1976 • Children, as young as 9, refused to go to school because the government was forcing them to be taught in Afrikaner – the language of the whites
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bq5J7TKt8xI&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=activehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bq5J7TKt8xI&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active • What began as a peaceful march soon turned into a bloody massacre! • Police tried to stop the march, which by now was more than 10,000 students, but the students just found other routes. • So, in anger the police released dogs and then shot tear gas into the crowds. • When the students began throwing rocks, the police responded with bullets! (They were “allowed” to because they had declared a state of emergency.) • These riots spread to other townships (homelands) • Several hundred students were killed and many more wounded.
The world responds…International Intervention • 70’s throughout the 80’s • 1977 - Mandatory arms embargo • 1980 - Cease supply of aircrafts, parts, and engines • 1985 – US and Great Britain impose sanctions • Banned imports from South Africa • Prohibited American investments in South Africa
Key people working to end apartheid • African National Congress (ANC) • Group of black Africans that opposed apartheid. • Nelson Mandela • A leader of the ANC • stressed non-violent protests (followed Gandhi’s example) • Civil disobedience • Passive resistance • Arrested and imprisoned for 27 years • Later became South Africa’s first black president • Willem de Klerk • A white South African who opposed apartheid • Elected president 1989 • Freed Nelson Mandela and others wrongfully imprisoned
1989End of apartheid • End of apartheid • Mandela released from prison • 1994 – 1st multi-race election • Mandela elected 1st black president Mandela casting his vote in 1st multi-racial election – April 1994
State of South Africa today • All adults have the right to vote • However, still many live in poverty, many without running water and electricity • However, government working very hard to provide better life for all South Africans
Kenya • Although, there was a European presence in this part of Africa as early as 1498, Kenya did not become an official British colony until 1920. • Black people in the colony were denied a role in politics until 1944, when a few black people were allowed to run and hold office. • In the 1950s, there was a violent, seven year uprising resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands of black Kenyans. (Mau Mau Rebellion) • Black participation in government increased steadily during this period, and Kenya became an independent nation in 1963. • http://www.kenya-travel-packages.com/kenya-flag.htm l
When Jomo Kenyatta died on 22 August 1978, Moi became president. • Moiwon elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by political violence on both sides. Moi skillfully exploited Kenya's mix ofethnic tensions in these contests, with the ever present fear of the smaller tribes being dominated by the larger tribes! • President Moi stepped down in 2002, as required by the 1991 constitution. Uhuru Kenyatta, son of Jomo, Kenya's first President, secured the leadership of KANU and stood for the Presidency, BUT a group broke with KANU to form the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). • For the first time, all the opposition parties united under the banner of the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) and behind a single presidential candidate. • President Kibaki's general election victory on 27 December 2002 ended nearly 40 years of KANU rule. The elections were the cleanest and most peaceful in Kenya's history • Kenya is a multiparty democracy. It is one of the leading democracies in Africa KENYA TODAY
Nigeria • British influence in Nigeria began in 1885, and the territory officially became a British colony in 1914. • A largely peaceful nationalist movement in Nigeria led the British to move Nigeria gradually toward independence between 1945 and 1960. • Final independence was achieved in 1960. Unfortunately, economic development by the British during the colonial period was unequally distributed in the territory that became the country of Nigeria. • This allowed some of the ethnic groups in the country to have greater wealth and power than other ethnic groups. The injustice and ethnic tensions caused multiple rebellions throughout the 60s, 70s, 80, and 90s. • 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. http://flagspot.net/flags/ng.html
NIGERIA TODAY • The president faces the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. • In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability. • Although the April 2003 elections were marred by some irregularities, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. - CIA World Factbook.
AfricanNationalism • From 1900 to 1945, most Pan-Africanists, with the notable exception of Marcus Garvey, were black intellectuals from the United States, the Caribbean, and Europe or affluent black Africans studying abroad in Europe and the Americas. • After WWII, these young black leaders began to organize influential groups of black Africans. • Some of the groups attending Pan-African conferences in Europe developed nationalist movements in their colonies and fought for independence.
Independence • Someof the most influential Pan-Africanists rose to become president of newly independent African countries. This is true for Kenyatta in Kenya and Nkrumah in Ghana. • The Pan-African movement led to the development of a loose organization of African states known as the African Union.
South Africa’s economy • Gold mines • Leader in gold mining • World’s largest gold deposit Johannesburg – established as a gold mining town … now referred to as the City of Gold
South Africa leader in gold mining
Gold and diamonds together account for 85% of the mineral output in South Africa today.
South Africa’s Government • Republic • All citizens - whites and non-whites - vote • 3-tier system – national, provincial, and local levels • National • Bicameral parliament – members elected • National assembly • National council of provinces
Do you remember? • List some things non-whites were not allowed under apartheid laws. • What were the 3 classifications of people under the Population Registration Act? • What were “homelands”? • What did states of emergency allow? • In the Sharpeville Massacre, what was it that the demonstrators refused to carry? • What happened in the Soweto uprising?
Afrikaners Boers Apartheid Segregation Discrimination ANC Embargo Civil disobedience Sanction Passive resistance Words to know…
Your turn… • Choose one of the following… • Write a poem about apartheid • Write an editorial about helping the poor of South Africans today • Create a flyer that could have been posted in the days of apartheid that would have encouraged the end of apartheid • Write a speech for Nelson Mandela that he could have given the day of his release
Embargo • An order of a government prohibiting movement of merchant ships into and out of ports
Civil disobedience • The refusal to obey certain laws for the purpose of influencing legislation or government policies – characterized by nonviolent techniques such as boycotting, picketing, or non-payment of taxes
Sanctions • A penalty imposed on a nation that is violating international law
Segregation • The act of separating or setting apart from others
Discrimination • To make a distinction in favor of or against a person or people based on the group, class, or category the person/people belong
Passive resistance • Opposition to a government by means of nonviolent techniques, such as boycotting, picketing, etc.