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Waves, sound & Light. Wave: a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place. The material through which a wave travels through is called a medium . Waves that require a medium are called mechanical waves . The waves don’t carry the medium itself with them.

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wave a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place
Wave: a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place.
  • The material through which a wave travels through is called a medium. Waves that require a medium are called mechanical waves. The waves don’t carry the medium itself with them.
  • Waves are created when a source of energy causes a medium to vibrate.
types of waves
Types of waves
  • Transverse: move the medium at right angles to the direction in which the waves are traveling.
  • Longitudinal /Compressional: move particles of the medium parallel to the direction in which the waves are traveling.
  • Surface waves: combinations of transverse and longitudinal waves. They occur at the surface between two mediums, such as water and air. Causes water to move in a circle.
transverse waves
Transverse Waves
  • The highest points are called the crest, and the lowest are called the troughs.
longitudinal compressional
Longitudinal / Compressional:
  • The parts where the coils are close together are called compressions. The parts where the coils are spread out are called rarefactions.
properties of waves
Properties of waves
  • Amplitude: the maximum distance the particles of the medium carrying the wave move away from rest position. It is a direct measure of energy.
properties of waves ct d
Properties of waves Ct’d
  • Wavelength: distance between two corresponding parts of a wave.
properties of waves ct d1
Properties of waves Ct’d
  • Frequency: the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time. Measured in Hertz Hz
properties of waves ct d2
Properties of waves Ct’d
  • Speed: Waves in different mediums travel at different speeds. In addition the speed is related to the amount of pressure and temperature.
sound
Sound
  • Sound waves carry energy through a medium without the particles of the medium traveling along. A common medium is air. It travels as a longitudinal wave.
  • Sound waves can bend around a barrier, diffraction such as hearing around a corner.
speed of sound
Speed of Sound
  • Depends on elasticity, density , and temperature.
  • Elasticity: Travels more quickly in things that have more elasticity. The speed is faster in a solid, then liquid then gas.
  • Density: faster in the LEAST dense items.
  • Temperature: faster in higher temperatures.
properties of sound
Properties of Sound
  • Intensity: the amount of energy the wave carries per second through a unit area. Measured in W/m²
  • Loudness: what you actually hear. Measured in dB decibels. Each 10 dB increase represents a tenfold increase in intensity.
properties of sound1
Properties of Sound
  • Frequency: the number of vibrations that occur per second.
  • Most people hear 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
  • Ultrasound: frequencies above the normal range of hearing.
  • Infrasound: Sounds with frequencies below the normal range of hearing.
properties of sound2
Properties of Sound
  • Pitch: description of a sound of how high or low the sound seems to a person. It depends on the frequency.
  • High frequency sound waves have a high pitch while low pitch is made from a low frequency.