Job Satisfaction Among Registered Nurses Carla Alpheus Coppin State University Nurs 513 Dr. Tilghman December 17, 2013
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesObjectives • By the end of this presentation graduate nursing students were able to identify variables that represent job satisfaction among RNs • Graduate nursing students were able to understand how Roy Adaptation Model is applicable to job satisfaction in nursing • Graduate nursing students identified the significance of job satisfaction among RNs
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesPurpose of Clinical Project • This clinical project provided information to graduate nursing students about variables, which contribute to high turnover rates and job satisfactionamong RNs • Variables that include job flexibility, adequate pay and appropriate staffing, will be identified as measures of job satisfaction.
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesIntroduction • Stress among nurses in the practice setting, is a great consideration to leave a job and significantly affects job satisfaction (Paris and Terhaar, 2011). • Job satisfaction is a major factor for retention of nurses it spans generations (Leach and Yeager, 2013). • A lack of job satisfaction may lead to high rates of job turnover, and inappropriately staffed hospital (Needleman, Buerhaus, Pankratz, Leibson, Stevens, and Harris, 2011). • Nurses work satisfaction is negatively related to attrition from practice and the profession, and is positively related to the quality of care delivered(Morgan and Lynn, 2009).
Job satisfaction Among Registered Nurses • The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports, RNs are the largest healthcare occupation. • RNs held about 2.7 million jobs in 2010 and 48 percent were employed in general medical and surgical hospitals (BLS, 2012). • The United States is projected to have RN shortages exceeding 500,000 RNs by 2025 .
Job Satisfaction Among Registered Nurses • In 2011, American health care association , staffing report found that nationwide turnover of all nursing facility employees was 45% (AHCA, 2011). • Nationwide turnover rates for registered nurses were 42.8 %(AHCA, 2011). • ANA reported, the recruitment and retention of RNs are major challenges, the expense of nurse turnover rates, are between $62,100 and $67,100 to replace a single RN (ANA, 2013).
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesReview of Literature • Different variables have been proven to predict nurse turnover • inflexibility • work stress • heavy workloads • When nursing staff are satisfied with working conditions such as their overall environment, flexible schedules, and positive relationships; stress tends to be lower, resulting in a decrease in avoidable turnover (Hill, 2011).
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesReview of Literature (Cont’d) • The level of satisfaction a worker has with his or her job can affect their length of employment (BLS, 2013). • Additionally, the level of job satisfaction affects a person’s job performance, health, marital stability and parenting (BLS, 2013). • Work satisfaction is largely associated with retention it is a multidimensional construct that can support retention in a specific role and over-all in a profession” (Hill, 2011).
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesReview of Literature (Cont’d) • Job satisfaction has emotional effects on the quality of life of a provider, which can also affect patient care (Faris, Douglas, Maples, Berg and Thrailkill, 2010). • Job satisfaction may encompass numerous variables, and represent different things to individuals. • Ability to be autonomous • Higher salaries
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesClinical Project Assumption • Registered nurses enrolled in a graduate nursing program, return school to advance their level of education and move away from the bedside due to a lack of job satisfaction.
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConceptual Model • The Roy Adaptation Model was selected for the concepts it represented. • Focal stimuli, which directly affects the individual • Contextual stimuli, which contributes to the effects of the focal stimuli • Residual stimuli that result in vague effects (Alligood and Tomey, 2006)
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConceptual Model (Cont’d) • The Roy Adaptation model describes four adaptive modes • Physiologic-physical mode • Self-concept-group identity mode • Role function mode • Interdependence mode • The metaparadigm of the Roy Adaptation Model are the individual or group as an adaptive system, the individual consist of internal processes that maintains his or her integrity (Roy, 2009).
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConceptual Model (Cont’d) • Roy adaptation model relates humans to adaptive systems, coping and responding to environmental stimuli. • The model views people as holistic, diverse and responsive to external and internal stimuli in order to adapt. • Roy Adaptation Model, major processes for coping are termed the regulator and the cognator. • The regulator responds through neural, chemical, and endocrine coping channels • The cognator responds through emotional channels such as perceptual and information processing, learning, judgment, and emotion (Roy, 2009).
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConceptual Model (Cont’d) • Applying Roy Adaptation Model to this clinical project analyzes variables such as • Job flexibility • Salaries • Appropriate staffing • Identified as stimuli, affecting RNs coping and response to job satisfaction. • RNs are the adaptive system, focal stimuli such as stress or satisfying patient contact can result in the adaptive system (the RN) coping effectively or maladaptive.
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConceptual Model (Cont’d) • Roy Adaptation Model • Roles within a group are the vehicle through which the goals of the social system are accomplished. • Secondary roles are roles that people assume to complete the expectations of a developmental stage. • Variations in areas of a person's functioning will affect adaptation in other areas • The role function of the registered nurse is secondary role (Roy, 2009).
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConceptual Model (Cont’d) • Role of the RN is conflicting, due the above mentioned variables. • Utilizing this model the RN is the adaptive system, focal stimuli such as stress or satisfying patient contact can result in the adaptive system be, coping effectively or maladaptive. • Adaptation Model views the person, as an adaptive system attempting to maintain adaptation in the four adaptive modes. If the role function mode is not fulfilled this may lead to maladaptation
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConclusion • Registered nurses represent the occupation with the largest projected growth from 2010-2020 (BLS, 2012). • AHCA reports “retention rates for all nursing facility employees were 69.9 percent” (2011). • The nursing staff retention rate was the lowest among all nursing facility employees nationwide (AHCA, 2011). • There are many variables that represent job satisfaction among registered nurses. • Improving variables that lead to job satisfaction among RNs will aide in retention and attrition.
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesConclusion • Variables that are important to job satisfaction among RNs • flexibility • monetary earnings • staffing • Some of these variables may cause registered nurses to enroll in graduate nursing programssooner than originally planned. • Applying Roy Adaptation Model to nursing staff may assist recruiters and managerial staff with retention and reduce nationwide turnover rates for RNs.
Job Satisfaction Among Registered NursesPost presentation to graduate students • Graduate students questionnaire review of the literature: 23 student • Job satisfaction—43 %-money; 34%- flexibility ; appropriate staffing-43% • Stressed at work—60% • Satisfied with job as RN—70%-No • Advanced degree—70%-Yes • Job satisfacation affects patient care—100%-Yes
References • Alligood, M. R., & Tomey, M. A. (2005). Nursing Theorist and Their Works (7th ed.) • American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2011) Nursing Shortage Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheet/nursing-shortage. • American Healthcare Association. (2012). 2011 Staffing Survey Report. . • American Nurses Assocation. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org • Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Handbook. Retrieved fromhttp://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Registered-nurses.htm • Faris, J., Douglas, M., Maples, D., Berg, L., & Thrailkill, A. (2010). Job satisfaction of advanced practice nurses in the Veterans Health Administration. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22, 35-44. • Hill, K. (2011). Work Satisfaction, Intent to Stay, Desires of Nurses, and Financial Knowledge among Bedside and Advanced Practice Nurses. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(5), 211-217. • Leach, F., & Yeager, K. (2013, April 2013). What makes a day at work extraordinary. Nursing Management, 20(1), 16-22. • Morgan, J.C; and Lynn, M.R (2009). Satisfaction in nursing in the context of shortage. Journal of nursing management 17 401-410. • Needleman, J., Buerhaus, P., Pankratz, S., Leibson, C., Stevens S., Harris, M. (2011) Nurse staffing and inpatient mortality. New England journal of medicine 364 (11) 1037-1045 • Paris, L., & Terhaar, M. (2011). Using Marlow’s Pyramid and the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators to Attain a Healthier Work Environment. Online journal of issues in nursing, 16(1). • Roy, C. (2009). . In The Roy Adaptation Model (3 ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.