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Chapter 18 Notes. The Scientific Revolution The enlightenment. The Scientific Revolution. Causes Astronomy Anatomy Science (and math) Effects. What were the CAUSES?. The Renaissance promoted a new way of thinking Exploration and expansion of trade

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Chapter 18 notes

Chapter 18 Notes

The Scientific Revolution

The enlightenment

The scientific revolution

The Scientific Revolution




Science (and math)


What were the causes
What were the CAUSES?

  • The Renaissance promoted a new way of thinking

  • Exploration and expansion of trade

  • The Reformation led to a questioning of religious beliefs and the important of God

  • Continuing study of ancient authorities

    • Greece

    • Rome

    • India

    • China

The scientific revolution astronomy

The Scientific Revolution Astronomy


Nicolaus Copernicus


Kepler (and Brahe)

Aristotle s theory
Aristotle’s Theory

  • The Greek Philosopher Aristotle believed in the “Geocentric” theory

    • That we lived in a finite, spherical universe with the Earth at the center

    • Earth was stationary in the middle and the Moon and the Sun orbited Earth.

    • He justified the Earth being stationary because he believed that the stars were static and did not move.

  • Ideas upheld by church and was accepted authority for European intellectuals

Copernicus theory
Copernicus’ Theory

Copernicus’ Universe

  • Created his own “Heliocentric” theory

    • The Earth revolves around the Sun, which is really the center of the solar system

  • Found Geocentric theory inaccurate, but did not want to be ridiculed for weaknesses

    • Copernicus was concerned that the publication of “On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies” would create trouble for him

    • It was not published until 1543, when he was near death

Comparison of beliefs

The Heliocentric Theory

Comparison of Beliefs

The Geocentric Theory

Galileo galilei

An Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

His achievements include:

Improvements to the telescope

Building the first telescope used for astronomy

Scanning the heavens beginning in 1609

In 1610, Galileo published an account of his telescopic observations of the moons of Jupiter, using this observation to argue in favor of the sun-centered, Copernican theory of the universe.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo and the catholic church
Galileo and the Catholic Church philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

  • In 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him neither to advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy

  • In October of 1632, Galileo was ordered to appear before the Holy Office in Rome.

  • Following a papal trial he was found suspect of heresy.

    • Galileo was forced to take back his support of Copernicus to save his life

    • Galileo was placed under house arrest and his movements restricted by the Pope.

    • From 1634 onward he was under house arrest at his country house at outside of Florence.

Johannes kepler
Johannes philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.Kepler

  • A mathematics teacher who continued the work of Copernicus on Planetary Motion

  • Was assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe

  • Achievements:

    • fundamental work in the field of optics

    • invented an improved version of the refracting telescope

    • helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei

Kepler s laws of planetary motion
Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

  • Kepler's three laws of planetary motion

    • The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at a focus.

    • A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.

    • The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

The scientific revolution anatomy

The Scientific Revolution Anatomy philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

Andreas Vesalius

William Harvey

Andreas vesalius
Andreas philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.Vesalius

  • An anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on anatomy, De humanicorporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body).

  • The founder of modern human anatomy

  • Accomplishments:

    • carried out dissection as the primary teaching tool, handling the actual work himself while his students clustered around the table.

    • believed the skeletal system to be the framework of the human body

    • Vesalius’ most impressive contribution to the study of the muscular system may be the incredible illustrations in his text

    • Vesalius defined a nerve as the mode of transmitting sensation and motion. He believed that nerves do not originate from the heart, as was the Aristotelian belief, but that nerves stemmed from the brain.

William harvey
William Harvey philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

English physician who was the first to describe correctly and in exact detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart.

He argued for the idea that blood was pumped around the body by the heart before returning to the heart and being re-circulated in a closed system.

The scientific revolution science and math

The Scientific Revolution Science (and Math) philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

Isaac newton

Francis bacon

Rene descartes

Antony van leeowenhoek

Robert Hooke

Isaac newton

English natural philosopher, physicist, mathematician, and astronomer.

Generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of science.

Considered by many to be the most important figure in human history.

Isaac Newton

Newton s achievements
Newton’s Achievements astronomer.

  • Newton’s Laws of Motion

    • Became the founding principle of mechanics and enlightened the masses about the relationships between force and motion.

    • His observation led him to the discovery of the gravitational force. It was Newton who showed that the gravitational force extends across the Earth.

  • Newton worked in the field of optics.

    • His work led to the discovery that a prism can decompose white light into a spectrum of colors.

  • Newton invented the generalized binomial theorem and started working on the development of a mathematical theory, which went on to become Calculus.

Francis bacon

An English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, and author.

Influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate of the scientific revolution

His works established and popularized an inductive methodology for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method or simply, the scientific method.

Francis Bacon

Bacon s scientific method
Bacon’s Scientific Method jurist, and author.

  • Technique for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.

    • To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.

  • The Scientific Method

    • Identify problem

    • Form hypothesis

    • Perform experiments to test hypothesis

    • Record results

    • Analyze results, form conclusion

Rene descartes
Rene Descartes jurist, and author.

  • “I never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such".

    • Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything, so as to assess the world from a fresh perspective, clear of any preconceived notions.

  • He is key in the use of empiricism (experimentation to answer questions).

  • Descartes' influence in mathematics is also apparent

    • The Cartesian coordinate system allowing geometric shapes to be expressed in algebraic equations.

    • He is also known as the father of analytical geometry.

Antony van leeuwenhoek
Antony van Leeuwenhoek jurist, and author.

Dutch scientist, 1600s

Used interest in developing magnifying lens to invent microscope

First to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast, other microorganisms

Robert hooke
Robert Hooke jurist, and author.

•English physician, inventor

•Used early microscope to describe appearance of plants at microscopic level

•Credited with creating the term cell

What was the significance
What was the SIGNIFICANCE? jurist, and author.

  • The science of the late Renaissance was significant in establishing a base for modern science.

    • “The renaissance enabled a scientific revolution which let scholars look at the world in a different light.

    • Religion, superstition, and fear were replaced by reason and knowledge”.

  • This period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across physics, astronomy, and biology, and in the more widely held picture of the universe.

    • Brilliant minds started to question all manners of things and it was this questioning that led to the scientific revolution, which in turn formed the foundations of all modern sciences.

What were the effects
What were the EFFECTS? jurist, and author.

It led to an increased use of reason an observation to explain nature

It created greater sense of need for instruments such as microscopes

It emphasized the scientific method

It promoted the expansion of knowledge by not accepting things on face value or faith

It increased the belief in progress and the power of reason

It led to a new view of the universe as a well-ordered system

The enlightenment

The Enlightenment jurist, and author.

What exciting conclusion did philosophers reach?

Reason could be used to solve all human problems.

Thomas hobbes
Thomas Hobbes jurist, and author.

  • All humans were naturally selfish and wicked, therefore governments must keep order.

  • People should hand over their rights to a strong ruler. This was what Hobbes called a social contract.

  • Strong ruler should have total power

    (an absolute monarchy).

  • This powerful government with

    awesome power is what he called

    a leviathan (sea monster),

    therefore he titled his book


John locke

People were reasonable (though still selfish) and had the natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

Purpose of government is to protect these natural rights.

Government power comes from the consent of the people (foundation for democracy).

John Locke

Baron de montesquieu

Proposed natural rights to life, liberty, and property.the “separation of powers”

Executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government

Kept individuals or groups from abusing power

Proposed “checks and balances”

Allowed each branch to check against the power of the other two

Published The Spirit of the Laws

Published 1748

Showed admiration of Great Britain’s government (thought it was the best!)

Baron de Montesquieu

Voltaire natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

  • Real name was Francois-Marie Arouet.

  • Wrote more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama.

  • Used satire against his enemies,

    especially the clergy.

  • Imprisoned twice for his beliefs,

    which were:

    • Tolerance

    • Reason

    • Freedom of religious belief

    • Freedom of speech

    • “I do not agree with a word you say

      but will defend to the death your right

      to say it.”

Jean jacques rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

  • Passionately committed to individual freedom.

  • Believed man was born free and good but easily corrupted.

  • Believed the only good government was the “general will” or direct democracy.

    • Government should work for common good, not just the wealthy few

    • Despised inequality in society

      •Views inspired revolutionaries in years to come

Mary wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

  • Demanded equal rights for women and pushed against traditional views about women

    • Women and men should be educated equally

    • Women should enter professions traditionally dominated by men like medicine and politics

  • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, which advocated equal education for women

Adam smith
Adam Smith natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

Scottish economist, used reason to analyze economic systems

The Wealth of Nations advanced free market enterprise

Strong believer in laissez-faire economics, no government regulation

Believed economy would be stronger if market forces of supply and demand were allowed to work freely

Enlightened monarchs
Enlightened Monarchs natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

  • The new political ideas affected the leadership of some 18th century European monarchs.

  • The ideals of tolerance, justice, and the improvement of people’s lifestyle became guidelines for these rulers

    • Joseph II of Austria

    • Frederick II of Prussia

    • (We discussed in Chapter 15!)

  • They still ruled absolutely, but they internalized the Enlightenment philosophy and made attempts to tolerate diversity, increased opportunity for serfs, and take on the responsibilities that required their rule.

The enlightenment spreads

The Enlightenment Spreads natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

Baroque Music

Classical Music

Baroque musicians
Baroque Musicians natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

  • Antonio Vivaldi

    • Most famous work Le quattrostagioni (The Four Seasons)

    • Wrote operas, sonatas, and chamber music

  • Johann Sebastian Bach

    • Most famous work: Jesu Joy of Man’s Desiring

    • Wrote cantatas, chorales, organ works, lute and chamber music

  • George Frederick Handel

    • Most famous work: Messiah oratorio, traditionally performed during the Christmas season, include “Hallelujah Chorus”

    • Wrote operas, oratorios, cantatas, numerous arias,

      and chamber music

Classical musicians
Classical Musicians natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

  • Joseph Haydn

    • Known as “Father of the Symphony” and “Father of the String Quartet”

    • Wrote symphonies, numerous concertos for

      various instruments, and operas

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    • Most famous works: Toy Symphony and Flute concerto No. 2 in D Major, K 314

    • Wrote operas, symphonies, concertos, piano music, chamber music, and music for masses

  • Ludwig von Beethoven

    • Most famous works: his 5th and 9th symphonies

    • Wrote symphonies, operas, piano and choral music