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The 1960’s BY: Peter Nicole Kat Matt
The upside of the 1960’s Culture • Music • Movies • Fads
The downside to 1960s Culture • Music http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=StFhvAIv3Js • Movies • Fads
Popular Musicians • Jimmie Hendrix • The Grateful Dead • The Temptations • The Beatles • Beach Boys • -Stereotypical Hippie Music • -This Music is Mellow • -Not only a staple of the 1960’s, but also this music is symbolic of the peace efforts for America to stay out of war.
Motown • The Temptations • By 1963, Motown became the most successful black-owned record company in the history of American music. • Motown had a stable of vocal groups, songwriters, musicians. • Some others include: • The Four Tops • Martha Reeves & the Vandellas • Diana Ross & The Supremes
Sports • Everyone had Television so many people used it for a way to relax. They also listened to the radio broadcasts of many baseball and boxing matches. • Muhammad Ali- considered the greatest boxer ever to live. He converted to Muslim religion and that is when he became popular. He also was first to resist the Vietnam draft and was sentenced to 5 years in prison.
Theatre, Music/Radio, Television • Star Trek- Original run was September 8, 1966- June 3, 1969. An American science fiction television series created by Gene Rodenberry. The show has won many awards the most recent being in 2007. • The Addams Family- 30 minute series was shot in black and white and aired for two seasons on ABC from September 18, 1964 to April 8, 1966 totaling 64 episodes. • James Bond Movies- British series of motion pictures based on the fictional character who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Flemming. It is the longest continually running film series in history having been in ongoing production from 1962 to present day with a 6 year break between 1989-1995. • Bewitched- Sitcom, fantasy, created by Sol Saks, Executive producer: Harry Ackerman, Producer: Danny Arnold. Original run September 17, 1964-July 1, 1972. It was an American situation comedy originally broadcast for eight seasons on ABC. It is about a witch who marries a mortal and tries to lead the life of a typical suburban housewife. Finished #2 show in American during its debut season. • Beverly Hillbillies- sitcom, created by Paul Henning, Executive Producer: Al Simon. Filmed in black and white. Its about a poor backwards family transplanted to Beverley Hills California after striking oil on their land. First genre of fish out of water themed TV.
Flintstones: It’s an animated prime time American television sitcom that screened from September 30, 1960 to April 1, 1966 on ABC. It was about a working class stone age mans life with his family and next door neighbor/best friend. Two versions of movies present day today. • Sound of Music: Opened on Broadway at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre on November 16, 1959, moved to the Mark Hellinger Theatre on November 6, 1962 and closed on June 15, 1963 after 1,443 performances. • Marilyn Monroe- Norma Jeane Mortensen Baker was professionally known as Marilyn Monroe, an actress, model and singer who became a major sex symbol starring in multiple successful movies. Final years of life were spent by illness, personal problems, and a reputation for being unreliable and difficult to work with.
The Twist • The Twist was a dance inspired by rock and roll music. It became the first worldwide dance craze in the early 1960s, enjoying immense popularity among young people and drawing fire from critics who felt it was too provocative. It inspired dances such as the Jerk, the Pony, the Watusi, the Mashed Potato, the Monkey and the Funky Chicken, although none were as popular. The dance was inspired by “The Twist,” Chubby Checker's 1960 cover of the B-side of Hank Ballard & The Midnighters' 1959 single, “Teardrops on Your Letter”. • The Twist is performed by standing with the feet approximately shoulder width apart. The torso may be squared to the knees and hips, or turned at an angle so one foot is farther forward than the other. The arms are held out from the body, bent at the elbow. The hips, torso, and legs rotate on the balls of the feet as a single unit, with the arms staying more or less stationary. The feet grind back and forth on the floor, and the dance can be varied in speed, intensity, and vertical height as necessary. Occasionally one leg is lifted off the floor for styling, but generally the dance posture is low and with the feet in contact with the floor with very little vertical motion. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=im9XuJJXylw
Mashed Potato Dance • The Mashed Potato is a dance move which was a popular dance craze of 1962. It was danced to songs such as Dee Dee Sharp's "Mashed Potato Time". Also referred to as "mash potato" or "mashed potatoes", the move vaguely resembles that of the Twist, by Sharp's fellow Philadelphian, Chubby Checker. • The dance begins by stepping backward with one foot with that heel tilted inward. The foot is positioned slightly behind the other (stationary) foot. With the weight on the ball of the starting foot, the heel is then swiveled outward. The same process is repeated with the other foot: step back and behind with heel inward, pivot heel out, and so on. The pattern is continued for as many repetitions as desired. The step may be incorporated in various dances either as a separate routine or as a styling of standard steps. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvNp98ESebw&noredirect=1
AM to FM Radio • AM broadcasting is the process of radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation. AM was the first method of impressing sound on a radio signal and is still widely used today. Commercial and public AM broadcasting is carried out in the medium wave band world wide, and on long wave and short wave bands also. Once AM was the only commercially important method for broadcast signal modulation. Today, it competes with FM broadcasting for mobile reception of music and speech, as well as with various digital modes distributed from terrestrial and satellite transmitters. • AM was the dominant method of broadcasting during the first eighty years of the 20th century and remains widely used into the 21st. • AM radio began with the first, experimental broadcast on Christmas Eve of 1906 by Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden, and was used for small-scale voice and music broadcasts up until World War I. San Francisco, California radio station KCBS claims to be the direct descendant of KQW, founded by radio experimenter Charles "Doc" Herrold, who made regular weekly broadcasts in San Jose, California as early as June 1909. On that basis KCBS has claimed to be the world's oldest broadcast station and celebrated its 100th anniversary in the summer of 2009. The great increase in the use of AM radio came late in the following decade as radio experimentation increased worldwide following World War I. The first licensed commercial radio services began on AM in the 1920s. XWA of Montreal, Quebec (later CFCF, now CINW) claims status as the first commercial broadcaster in the world, with regular broadcasts commencing on May 20, 1920. The first licensed American radio station was started by Frank Conrad, KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Radio programming boomed during the "Golden Age of Radio" (1920s–1950s). Dramas, comedy and all other forms of entertainment were produced, as well as broadcasts of news and music.
Fadsand Fashions • G.I. Joes- a line of action figures produced by the toy company Hasbro. The G.I. in G.I. Joes stands for Government Issued. The original G.I. Joe started off in a 12 inch line that began in 1964 centered on realistic action figures. Extremely popular with boys. • Peasant Skirts- mini skirts of the 1960s. Ankle length and flowing. Made of cotton material and had a variety of styles and colors were commonly worn with a sash style belt and sandals • Skateboards- had clay wheels which didn’t grip the road well. It caused many crashes and a dramatic increase in bandage sales and E.R. visits. There was a Scooter Skate (3 wheels), Roller Derby, Skee Skate, Sokol Skate, Nash Sidewalk Surfer, Sincor and the Super Surfer.
SKEE SKATE SCOOTER SKATE PEASANT SKIRTS G.I. JOES
Nehru Jackets- style inspired by and named after a Prime Minister of India. Became popular among hippies because of their interest in other cultures and religions and how they influenced types of dress. The jacket had a band collar, was single breasted, and worn in two lengths, either slightly below the knee or several inches below the waist. • Go-Go Boots- low heeled style of women's fashion boot worn in the mid 60’s when fashion silhouettes focused on accentuating the leg. They first appeared in the 60’s. Go-Go boot can be can be used to describe any style of knee-high boots regardless of heel height. • Afros- The hair style is often shaped and maintained with the assistance of a wide toothed comb colloquially known as an afro pick. Popular in the African-American community. • Bouffant Hairstyle- type of hairstyle characterized by piled high on the head and hanging down on the sides.
Brown vs. Board of Education • Plaintiffs segregation was unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. • Plessy vs. Ferguson which allowed separate but equal school systems. • Ruled “separate but equal” public schools as unconstitutional
Little Rock Nine • Nine African American students integrated into Little Rock’s Central High • Governor OrvalFaubus ordered in the National Guard and wouldn’t allow the students to enter the school • Judge ordered Faubus to remove guardsman from the front of the building • Students could go in the building but needed a police escort everyday because of the mob • Students finished the year but had to find a new school for next year because voters chose to close all four of Little Rock’s high schools to prevent more desegregation
Montgomery Bus Boycott • Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white person • Caused African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama to boycott riding on city buses • Caused a huge financial debt • Browder v. Gayle declared Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional
Civil Rights Movement • -sometimes referred to as the second reconstruction era • -Jim Crow Laws failed: Ironically Leading to the term Jim Crow being used as a word to describe any violent or discriminatory acts towards African Americans. • - The black leadership adopted a combined strategy of direct action with nonviolent resistance known as civil disobedience • -Montgomery Bus Boycott • -From this the Movement took off • -Brown vs. Board of Education nullified “separate but equal.” • -From this stemmed the: • A) Chicano Movement • B) American Indian Movement • C) Gender equity issues
J.F.K. • -35th president of the United States • -Assassinated in 1963 • -Firm Believer In the Containment Of Communism • -If South Vietnam fell, then other states would too –Domino Theory- • -Decided that defending the South of Vietnam was worth the risk to Contain Communism • -Beliefs went along with Dwight D. Eisenhower
JFK AND LBJ • -JFK could not pass the Civil Rights act at first • -Republicans in opposition • -JFK compromised on most of bill gaining support • -Stronger bill and easier for LBJ to carry on and pass • -In ways, Lyndon B Johnsons administration was a continuation of the JFK administration • -Civil Rights act brought on by JFK • and was finished by LBJ.
LBJ Failed Strategy • March 1965 “Operation Rolling Thunder” bombing campaign against military targets in the North. • Goal: to weaken enemy will to fight • Bombed trails to bring supplies • Vietcong build facilities underground to protect them from the raids. • When very little resulted there was high intensity with the president • Daily average of 800 tons of bombs dropped. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwGdtSHLFfo
LBJ’s Great Society • Civil Rights act (1964) • Economic Opportunity Act (1964) “War on Poverty-national federal funding also helped disadvantaged schools. • Medicare- medical help for elderly and younger recipients of welfare. • Medicaid- program that provides free health care to the needy. • Quality of Life- supported the National Endowment for the arts helped corporations and public broadcastings who offered educational programms.
Gulf Of Tonkin • Aug 2, 1964 U.S. Maddox and Turner Joy wer performing intelligence patrol when Japanese forces fired on them. • Happened on different days but the Turner Joy never happened at all. The Maddox was spying on North Vietnam. • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- bill passed in congress to allow the president to take necessary measures to repel any armed attack on US. • Gave up Congress’ constitutional power to declare war.
Foreign and Domestic Challenges Faced by the United States Foreign • Fear of nuclear war--- Cuban Missile Crisis in 1963 • Fear of the spread of communism– especially in Cuba where Fidel Castro established a Communist style dictatorship with ties to the Soviet Union • Construction of the Berlin Wall separating East and West Germany
Cuban Missile Crisis • The Cold War’s greatest crisis. • Marked a historic turning point in the U.S. Soviet relations. Kennedy and Krushchev sought to ease tensions between their countries. In 1963 the United States, the Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty to end the testing of nuclear bombs in the atmosphere and underwater. • A hot line was also set up between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. This teletype line enabled the leaders of the two countries to communicate directly during a crisis. This teletype line enabled the leaders of the two countries to communicate directly during a crisis.
Domestic problems • Rising unemployment • Rising inflation • Stock market decline: on May 28, 1962 the Dow Jones average fell 35 points– the largest drop in a single day since October 1929 • Poverty– many people living in rural areas and minority groups faced with discriminatory hiring practices were living in complete poverty (no everyone benefited from the affluence of the 1950s) • Racism
Inflation • When Kennedy took office he faced many problems such as rising unemployment and inflation. • To stimulate economic growth he called for an increase in government spending. By the end of 1961, inflation had gone down but unemployment remained high.
Helping the Dsiadvantaged • Kennedy was ranked high among the wealthiest presidents– in 1962 his personal fortune stood at about $2.5 million. He donated his annual salary of $100,000 to charities. • Once Kennedy took office he supported passage of the Area Redevelopment Act (ARA)– a bill to provide financial assistance to economically distressed regions that former president Eisenhower had vetoed. The ARA law went into effect May 1961. • Kennedys interest in poverty was renewed in 1962 when a social activist Michael Harrington published The Other America a well documented study of poverty in the United States.
“The poor exist within the most powerful and rich society the world has ever known. Their misery has continued while the majority of the nation talked of itself as being affluent (wealthy). … In this way tens of millions of human beings became invisible. They dropped out of sight and out of mind. … How long shall we ignore this underdeveloped nation in our midst?”
Inventions • First hand held calculator from TI was for $2500. • First laser made in New Jersey in 1960. Used for surgery for multiple purposes. • The first CD, very popular for people to have a small compact listening device. • One of the biggest military inventions was the • M-16 assault rifle.
Laser • 1954 Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow invented the Maser (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) • Theodore Maiman invented the ruby laser, said to be the first light laser. • Controversy the Gordon Gould was the first to invent the laser
Artificial Heart • Dr. Paul Winchell was the first to have a patent • Better known as the voice of Tigger in Winnie the Pooh and was a well known ventriloquist • Dummy helped him build the heart
Space Flight • First flight program was Project Mercury in 1958 • Yuri Gagarin-First person in space • Alan Shepard Jr.-First American in space • Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin-First people on the moon
Heart Transplant • Done by Christian Barnard • Done on Louis Washkansky • Denise Darvall was the donor • Transplant was a success • Patient died 18 days after transplant because of double pneumonia