Neat Fact – Your heart beats about 100,000 times in one day and about 35 million times in a year. During an average lifetime, the human heart will beat more than 2.5 billion times. Introduction: Basic Anatomy of the Heart. Chapter Learning Objectives:
Neat Fact – Your heart beats about 100,000 times in one day and about 35 million times in a year. During an average lifetime, the human heart will beat more than 2.5 billion times.
Chapter Learning Objectives:
Describe the location, approximate size, and function of the heart
Describe the protective coverings of the heart
3) Identify the major anatomical structures of the heart and explain how they function
Trace the pathway of blood through the heart
Describe cardiac muscle
Explain the heart’s pacemaker and the electrical conductivity of the heart
Explain the waves of an ECG
Developed by Stephanie Lanoue for L.I.T. 5/14/2007
2)Put your hand on your heart (keep it there).
Neat Fact: The heart pumps about 1 million barrels of blood during an average lifetime--that's enough to fill more than 3 super tankers.
How big is your heart?
Neat Fact: On average, your body has about 5 liters of blood continually traveling through it by way of the circulatory system.
Class Activity: Appreciating Your Heart as a Pump.
▪ Do you know that the heart has 2 protective membranes around it?
Heart enclosed in double-walled sac called the ________________.
Superficial – fibrous pericardium
Deep – serous pericardium
*between the 2 layers is some fluid
Next, we are going to learn basic heart anatomy:
▪ 4 chambers
▪ 4 valves
▪ 4 main blood vessels coming into/ exiting the heart
Remember, you are looking at someone else’s chest!
(Speaking of someone else’s chest…heart surgery photos)
Photos from Open Heart Surgery Observations – Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX
NOTE TO STUDENTS: Label the structures of the heart on your diagram as I explain them.
NOTE: Atria = plural form of atrium
Valves, flaps of connective tissue between the atria and ventricles, allow blood to flow one-way
semilunar valve image
(3 cusps are open)
mitral valve image
( 2 cusps)
Neat Fact: Heart sounds (“lub, dub”) are caused by the closing of the heart valves. The mitral & tricuspid valves make the 1st sound, and the aortic & pulmonary valves the 2nd.
Chordae tendineae (“heart strings”) attached to ______ and _____ valves. They anchor valve cusps to the papillary muscles (which play a role in valve function). Papillary muscles protrude from the ventricle walls.
Coronary circulation is blood provided by the right and left coronary arteries.
Also, several anterior cardiac veins.
Instructions: Working with a partner, can you describe the flow of blood through the heart? Start with the right atrium. List all the major structures along the way (chambers, valves, and vessels). Refer to the diagram on page 602.
Example: Rt. atrium > ? valve> ? (chamber) > ? valve up the pulmonary trunk which divides into the > ? arteries (which send the deoxygenated blood into the ? for O2.) From the lungs back to the heart along the ? Veins > ? (chamber) through the ? Valve >? (chamber) > ? Valve > Aorta > Body > Venae cavae.
Cardiac muscle – _______, short (fat/ _______) cells that are interconnected for quicker communication & conduction of electrical current.
Video footage: http://video.aol.com/video-detail/beating-human-heart-cells-from-embryonic-stem-cells/4230805508
Know Sequence of Excitation:
1. Sinoatrial node (SAN) or __________ >
2. _______ventricular node (AVN) >
3. Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of ___) >
4. Right and Left bundle branches >
5. Purkinje fibers (directly supply the papillary muscles)
See animation: http://www.jdaross.cwc.net/cardiac_cycle.htm
Electrocardiogram (ECG) http://www.cardioconnection.org/frameWork.aspx?cnt=cad/diagnosis/ecg#
3 Distinguishable Waves:
___ – initiation of the heartbeat in the atria
___ – movement of the electrical current through the ventricles
__ – recovery phase; electrical current spreads back over the ventricles in the opposite direction
Healthy heart – _____, ______, and timing of waves tend
to be _____________
Unhealthy heart – waves are ______
Examples: an enlarged R wave hints of enlarged ventricles or a prolonged Q-T interval may reveal ventricular arrhythmias
Arrhythmias – ________ heartbeats caused by uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contractions
Example: atrial flutter http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3q4TJUmMztY
___________ – rapid and irregular contractions; SAN looses control of setting the pace; fatal condition
Heart ________ – blood back flowing through a heart valve
___________ –abnormally fast heart rate
__________ – heart rate slower than 60 beats per minute
Congestive heart failure – progressively worsening condition in which the heart can no longer pump blood efficiently (heart weakens and enlarges)