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Anatomy of the Heart. Part 2. Atria. Atria Low pressure chambers Separated from each other by the inter-atrial septum RA receives deoxygenated blood from the SVC, IVC and CS LA receives oxygenated blood from the 4 pulmonary veins. Atria. Atria

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Anatomy of the Heart

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  • Low pressure chambers
  • Separated from each other by the inter-atrial septum
  • RA receives deoxygenated blood from the SVC, IVC and CS
  • LA receives oxygenated blood from the 4 pulmonary veins.


  • Atria serves as conduit – 70% of blood flows directly through the atria into the ventricles before the atria contracts.
  • Atrial contraction contributes the remaining 30%.
  • Pump blood to the lungs and systemic circulation.
  • Interventricular septum separates the right and left ventricles.
  • Externally this septum correspond to a groove, the interventricular sulcus which anatomically divided into the anterior and posterior interventricular sulci.
  • Larger and thicker than atria
  • LV is a high pressure chamber
  • The capacity of each ventricles is approximately 150 ml.
layers of the heart
Layers of the Heart
  • Epicardium
  • Myocardium
  • Endocardium
layers of the heart1
Layers of the Heart


  • External layer of the heart.
  • The coronary arteries, blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers and fat are found in this layer.
layers of the heart2
Layers of the Heart


  • Middle and thickest layer of the heart.
  • Responsible for contraction of the heart
  • Muscle fibers of the myocardium are separated by connective tissue supplied by blood vessels and nerve fibers.
layers of the heart3
Layers of the Heart


  • Thin, smooth layer of epithelium and connective tissue.
  • Lines the heart’s inner chambers, chordae tendineae, valves and papillary muscles
  • Continuous with the innermost layer of the arteries, veins and capillaries of the body.
layers of the heart4
Layers of the Heart


  • Double walled sac.
  • Encloses heart and protects from trauma and infection.
layers of the heart5
Layers of the Heart

Fibrous Pericardium

  • Rough outer layer of the pericardium is called the fibrous pericardium.
  • Continuous with outer wall of the great vessels
  • Blends with the fascia of the diaphragm.
layers of the heart6
Layers of the Heart

Serous Pericardium

  • Consists of two layers
  • Parietal layer which lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium.
  • Visceral layer adheres to the outside of the heart.
  • Visceral layer = epicardium
cardiac muscle
Consist of many muscle cells (myocytes)

Each muscle cell is enclosed in a membrane called a sarcolemma.

Each cells contains hundreds of long, tubule like structures called myofibrils

Cardiac Muscle
cardiac muscle1
Cardiac Muscle
  • Each myofibril consist of many sarcromeres
  • Each sarcromere consist of two types of proteins: actin and myosin.
cardiac muscle2
Cardiac Muscle

Cardiac Muscle




Actin &


cardiac muscle5
Cardiac Muscle

Actin Myofibril Contains two proteins:

  • Tropomyosin
  • Troponin

These two proteins inhibit the formation of

cross bridges with myosin.

cardiac muscle6
Cardiac Muscle

When cross bridge formation is inhibited

the muscle is relaxed.

cardiac muscle7
Cardiac Muscle

Each muscle cell is surrounded by a cell

membrane called the sarcolemma.

Each muscle fibers contain T tubules that

are extensions of the cell membrane.

Another system of tubules called the

sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium.

cardiac muscle8
Cardiac Muscle

Calcium enters the cytoplasm from:

  • The interstitial fluid via the T tubules
  • Sarcroplasmic reticulum
cardiac muscle9
Cardiac Muscle

Cardiac Muscle Fibers

  • Consist of long branching cells
  • The cells fit together tightly at junctions
  • These junctions are called intercalated disc.
cardiac muscle10
Cardiac Muscle
  • These tight-fitting junctions gives an appearance of a syncytium.
  • Intercalated disc fit together in such a way to form permeable gap junctions.
cardiac muscle11
Cardiac Muscle
  • This gap junction function as electrical connections.
  • These connections join the muscle fibers into a single unit.
cardiac muscle12
Cardiac Muscle
  • This allows for rapid conduction of an impulse throughout the wall of a cardiac chamber.
  • This results in the wall of both atria (and both ventricle) to contract almost simultaneously.
cardiac muscle13
Cardiac Muscle

The heart consist of two syncytia:

  • Atrial Syncytium
    • Right atrial wall
    • Left atrial wall
  • Ventricular Syncytium
    • Right ventricular wall
    • Left ventricular wall
cardiac muscle14
Cardiac Muscle

Impulses can only be conducted

from the atrial syncytium into

ventricular syncytium by means

of the atrioventricular junction.

cardiac muscle15
Cardiac Muscle







heart valves
Heart Valves
  • Two atrioventricular valves
    • Mitral
    • Tricuspid
  • Two Semilunar
    • Aortic
    • Pulmonic
atrio ventricular valve
Atrio-ventricular Valve

Each atrio-ventricular valve consists


  • Annulus – (tough fibrous rings)
  • Leaflets
  • Chordae tendineae
  • Papillary muscles
atrio ventricular valve1
Atrio-ventricular Valve

The base of the leaflets are attached to

the fibrous annulus.

The tips of the AV valves are attached to

thin strands of fibrous tissue called fibrous

connective tissue chordae tendineae.

atrio ventricular valve2
Atrio-ventricular Valve

The chordae tendineae are attached to

small mounds of myocardium called

papillary muscle.

tricuspid valve
Tricuspid Valve
  • Lies between the RA and RV
  • Consists of 3 leaflets: anterior, posterior and septal.
  • Opens when the pressure in the RA becomes greater than the pressure in the RV.
mitral valve
Mitral Valve
  • Lies between the LA and LV
  • Consists of 2 leaflets: anterior and posterior.
  • Opens when the pressure in the LA becomes greater than the pressure in the LV.
pulmonic valves
Pulmonic Valves

Pulmonic Valve

  • Lies between the RV and Main Pulmonary artery.
  • Consists of 3 cusps.
  • The Pulmonic Valve opens when the pressure in the RV becomes greater than the pressure in the Pulmonic Artery.
aortic valves
Aortic Valves

Aortic Valve

  • Lies between the LV and Aorta
  • Consists of 3 cusps.
  • The Aortic Valve opens when the pressure in the LV becomes greater than the pressure in the Aorta.