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360° Leadership: Leading UP, Across, and Down from anywhere in the Organization RCCD Leadership Academy May 3, 2013
360°Leadership Compass N Leading Up 25% Self Leadership 50% Leading Laterally W E 20% 5% Leading Down S Leading from the Inside Out
The Foundation for managing without authority Kouzes & Posner
The search to understand leadership… …from the leaders’ perspective and the followers’ perspective… …over 30 years ago.
The Leaders’ Perspective:Personal Best Leadership Experience Get into triads: Each person will tell his/her personal best leadership story.* (5 minutes each) Discuss these questions: What do the keys to leadership success seem to be? What common leadership practices run through all the stories? Share with group. (chart) * An experience where you were not the positional leader, if possible.
Some Details About Kouzes & Posner’s Personal Best Case Studies Personal Best leadership experiences reveal uniformity of behavioral “Practices” across sectors, genders, geographies, functions, levels and ages. Using these best “Practices” more frequently makes a leader more effective. Reliability and validity of these findings have been tested for 30 years and counting.
The Followers’ Perspective What do youlook for and admire in a leader? (someone whose direction you would willingly follow)
Top Rated Leadership Characteristics Honest Forward-Looking Inspiring Competent
Leadership = + Credibility Honest Competent Inspiring Vision Forward-Looking
“Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations.” Kouzes & Posner
Leadership is... …Everyone’s business …A relationship …Learned …Self-development …An ongoing process
First Law of Leadership If you don’t believe in the messenger, you won’t believe in the message. You can’t believe in the messenger if you don’t know what the messenger believes. You can’t be the messenger until you’re clear about what you believe. Credibility is key: Honest Forward Looking Inspiring Competent
Second Law of Leadership DWYSYWD: Do What You Say You Will Do. Walk the talk. Practice what you preach. Follow through on promises. Credibility is key: Honest Forward Looking Inspiring Competent
Take a few moments… • …and list some famous people who were great leaders. • Would you say that these people had great credibility? Vision? Were they examples of the first and second laws of leadership? • How many of these people had positional authority? If so, did their positions make them great leaders?
The Next Step in the Journey: The Model Model the Way Inspire a Shared Vision Challenge the Process Enable Others to Act Encourage the Heart
Model the Way Clarify values. What are the guiding principles that will focus your leadership? Set the example. Demonstrate your deep commitment to those principles. Modelingthe way is about earning the right and the respect to lead through direct involvement and action. People follow first the person, then the plan.
Inspire a Shared Vision Envision exciting and ennobling possibilities. You need a vision that others will want to adopt. Enlist others in the common vision. Know your people and speak their language. Leaders breathe life into the hopes and dreams of others and enable them to see the exciting possibilities that the future holds.
Challenge the Process Search for opportunities to innovate, grow, and improve. Create a climate for experimentation, the recognition of good ideas, the support of those ideas, and the willingness to challenge the system to get new ideas adopted. Experiment and take risks. Despite the inevitability of mistakes and failures, leaders proceed anyway. Try, fail, learn. Try, fail, learn. Leaders are learners.
Enable Others to Act Foster collaboration and build trust. Make it possible for others to do good work by making them feel strong, capable, and committed. Strengthen everyone’s capacity. Do what is necessary to help others grow and learn. When a leader makes people feel strong and capable—as if they can do more than they ever thought possible—they’ll give it their all and exceed their own expectations.
Encourage the Heart Recognize contributions. Make people feel valued for their contributions to the team or cause. Celebrate values and victories. Be authentic and offer celebrations from the heart. Encouraging the heart builds a strong sense of collective identity and community spirit that can carry a group through extraordinarily tough times.
Activity: Connect to Personal Best Leadership Experiences
Leadership Challenge Framework 5 Practices 10 Commitments 30 Behaviors (LPI)
Model the Way Clarify values by finding your voice and affirming shared ideals. Set the example by aligning actions with shared values. LPI BEHAVIORS 1. I set a personal example of what I expect of others. 6. I spend time and energy making certain that the people I work with adhere to the principles and standards we have agreed on. 11. I follow through on the promises and commitments that I make. 16. I ask for feedback on how my actions affect other people’s performance. 21. I build consensus around a common set of values for running our organization. 26. I am clear about my philosophy of leadership.
What do we know about values? • “The most talented people, no matter their age or background, gravitate to workplaces where they can look forward to going to work each day because their values ‘work’ in that organization.” • The clearer you are about your values, and the more aligned your values are with those of your team and organization, the more effective a leader you will be. Discussion: You’ve done a values activity. Are you clear on your top 5 values? How aligned are your values with your team and organization?
Inspire a Shared Vision Envision the future by imagining exciting and ennobling possibilities Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirations LPI BEHAVIORS 2. I talk about future trends that will influence how our work gets done. 7. I describe a compelling image of what our future could be like. 12. I appeal to others to share an exciting dream of the future. 17. I show others how their long-term interests can be realized by enlisting in a common vision. 22. I paint the “big picture” of what we aspire to accomplish. 27. I speak with genuine conviction about the higher meaning and purpose of our work.
Over all the years Kouzes and Posner have been collecting this data, leaders have consistently scoredlowest on… Inspiring a Shared Vision.
Where Leaders Need Improvement #7 I describe a compelling imageof what our future could be like. #17 Ishow others howtheir long-term interests can be realized by enlisting in a common vision. #12 Iappeal to othersto share an exciting dream of the future.
Explore • Choose a before picture and an afterpicture that describes where you are now and where you hope to be when your leadership vision is fulfilled.
Simon Sinek: How Great Leaders Inspire Action Explore the Golden Circle… http://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action.html
Challenge the Process Search for opportunities by seizing the initiative and by looking outward for innovative ways to improve. Experiment and take risks by constantly generating small wins and learning from experience. LPI BEHAVIORS 3. I seek out challenging opportunities that test my own skills and abilities. 8. I challenge people to try out new and innovative ways to do their work. 13. I search outside the formal boundaries of my organization for innovative ways to improve what we do. 18. I ask “What can we learn?” when things don’t go as expected. 23. I make certain that we set achievable goals, make concrete plans and establish measurable milestones for the projects and programs that we work on. 28. I experiment and take risks, even when there is a chance of failure.
To challenge the process… • Seize the initiative and encourage it in others. • Being the prime mover in strategic decisions. • Exercise outsight. • What’s new? • What’s next? • What’s better?
Outsight Exercise • Find the unusual object on your table. • Think of four or five ways you could use that object other than the way it is intended.
To challenge the process… • Generate small wins. • Dream big, but start small. Success begets success. • Break it down into small steps. • Learn from experience. • The overall quality of work improves when people have a chance to fail. Failure breeds success. • Create a safe environment for failure.
Ready, Aim, Fire • Ready: • Prepare • Due diligence • Prepare to respond thoughtfully instead of react impulsively • Aim: • Purposeful • Focused on well-considered solutions. • Grounded in reality (time energy, and resources are finite) • Fire: • Able to take the risk and pull the trigger because the risk makes sense. • See negative outcomes as problems to be solved, not catastrophes to be feared • Believe you can meet any challenge
Discussion • What challenges are you facing? • Are you ready? Have you done your due diligence? • Have you focused your aim on well-considered solutions? • Do you have the courage to fire, or pull the trigger, knowing that a failure is simply an opportunity for a new solution?
Enable Others to Act Foster collaboration by building trust and facilitating relationships. Strengthen others by increasing self-determination and developing competence. LPI BEHAVIORS 4. I develop cooperative relationships among the people I work with. 9. I actively listen to diverse points of view. 14. I treat others with dignity and respect. 19. I support the decisions that people make on their own. 24. I give people a great deal of freedom and choice in deciding how to do their work. 29. I ensure that people grow in their jobs by learning new skills and developing themselves.
To enable others to act… • Foster collaboration • Show trust to build trust: Build norms of reciprocity. • Say we, ask questions, listen, and take advice • Get people interacting
Prisoner’s Dilemma • You and a friend have committed a crime and have been caught. You are being held in separate cells. You are both offered a deal but have to decide what to do. But you are not allowed to communicate with your partner and you will not be told what they have decided until you have made a decision.
Prisoner’s Dilemma • Essentially the deal is this. • If you confess and your partner denies taking part in the crime, you go free and your partner goes to prison for five years. • If your partner confesses and you deny participating in the crime, you go to prison for five years and your partner goes free. • If you both confess you will serve four years each. • If you both deny taking part in the crime, you both go to prison for two years.
Prisoner’s Dilemma • Considering that you can't know what choice the other person is going to make, what is the best choice you can make to minimize your jail time?
To enable others to act… • Strengthen others • Enhance self-determination • People need to have a deep sense of being in control of your own life. • Design work that allows people discretion and choice. • Foster accountability • With personal freedom comes personal responsibility. • Accountability results in feelings of ownership.
Paradox of Power • You become more powerful when you give your power away! Exemplary leaders help their constituents feel strong, capable, and efficacious.
Developing Competence PANIC ZONE DRONE ZONE
Discussion • Where do you spend most of your time? • Panic zone • Drone zone • Flow
Encourage the Heart Recognize contributions by showing appreciation for individual excellence Celebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community LPI BEHAVIORS 5. I praise people for a job well done. 10. I make it a point to let people know about my confidence in their abilities. 15. I make sure that people are creatively rewarded for their contributions to the success of our projects. 20. I publicly recognize people who exemplify commitment to shared values. 25. I find ways to celebrate accomplishments. 30. I give members of the team lots of appreciation and support for their contributions.
“Do I need encouragement to perform at my best?” Vs. “When I get encouragement, does it help me perform at a higher level?” Encourage the Heart