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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:The Civil Rights Movement Section 2:Kennedy and Johnson Section 3:The Struggle Continues Section 4:Other Groups Seek Rights Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. The Civil Rights Movement Essential QuestionWhat were the legal and social challenges to racial segregation in the 1940s and 1950s? Chapter Intro

  4. Kennedy and Johnson Essential QuestionHow were Kennedy and Johnson alike and different as presidents of the United States? Chapter Intro

  5. The Struggle Continues Essential QuestionWhat areas of civil rights did groups try to improve in the 1960s, and what methods did those groups use? Chapter Intro

  6. Other Groups Seek Rights Essential QuestionHow did the civil rights movement affect minorities other than African Americans? Chapter Intro

  7. Chapter Time Line

  8. Chapter Time Line

  9. Chapter Preview-End

  10. What were the legal and social challenges to racial segregation in the 1940s and 1950s? Section 1-Essential Question

  11. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • segregation • integrate • boycott • civil disobedience Academic Vocabulary • discriminate • civil Section 1-Key Terms

  12. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • NAACP • Thurgood Marshall • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas • Rosa Parks • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Section 1-Key Terms

  13. A B When necessary, should the military be used to enforce Supreme Court decisions? A.Yes B.No Section 1-Polling Question

  14. Equality in Education After World War II, African Americans and other supporters of civil rights challenged discrimination in the nation’s public schools. Section 1

  15. Equality in Education (cont.) • African Americans had suffered from racism and discrimination since colonial times. • They fought for equal opportunities in jobs, housing, and education and fought against segregation—the separation of people of different races. School Segregation, 1950 Section 1

  16. Equality in Education (cont.) • When change did not come as quickly as desired, African Americans’ determination to end injustices in the United States led to the rise of the civil rights movement. School Segregation, 1950 Section 1

  17. Equality in Education (cont.) • In the 1950s, lawyers for the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) searched for cases they could use to challenge the laws allowing the segregation of public schools. • Thurgood Marshall, the chief lawyer for the NAACP, decided to challenge the idea of “separate but equal” established in 1896 in Plessy v. Ferguson. School Segregation, 1950 Section 1

  18. Equality in Education (cont.) • On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that it was unconstitutional to separate schoolchildren by race. • The Court also called on school authorities to make plans for integrating—bringing races together—in public schools. School Segregation, 1950 Section 1

  19. Equality in Education (cont.) • In 1957, Arkansas governor Orval Faubus called out the state’s National Guard to prevent African Americans from entering a Little Rock high school. • For the first time since the Civil War, a Southern state defied the federal government. School Segregation, 1950 Section 1

  20. Equality in Education (cont.) • President Eisenhower sent hundreds of federal soldiers to Little Rock to patrol the school and protect the students. School Segregation, 1950 Section 1

  21. A B C D Who argued against “separate but equal” schools before the Supreme Court? A.Earl Warren B.James Farmer C.George Houser D.Thurgood Marshall Section 1

  22. Gains on Other Fronts The success of the Montgomery bus boycott showed that nonviolent protest could help African Americans secure their rights. Section 1

  23. Gains on Other Fronts (cont.) • On the evening of December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, an African American, was told to move to the rear of the bus to make room for a white passenger. • Parks refused, and at the next bus stop, she was taken off the bus by police, arrested for breaking the law, and fined $10. Section 1

  24. Gains on Other Fronts (cont.) • Rosa Parks’s arrest led African Americans in Montgomery to organize a boycott of the city’s buses. • At a boycott meeting, a relatively unknown Baptist minister, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., made an impact on the crowd with his passionate words. Section 1

  25. Gains on Other Fronts (cont.) • The bus boycott lasted for more than a year, but eventually the Supreme Court ruled that the Montgomery bus segregation law was unconstitutional and the boycott ended. • With the victory in Montgomery, Dr. King became a leader of the civil rights movement. • Dr. King used protest methods based on civil disobedience, or the refusal to obey laws that are considered unjust. Section 1

  26. A B C D What method did African Americans use to fight discrimination on Montgomery buses? A.Violence B.Civil disobedience C.Boycott D.Strike Section 1

  27. Section 1-End

  28. How were Kennedy and Johnson alike and different as presidents of the United States? Section 2-Essential Question

  29. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • poverty line • Medicare • Medicaid Academic Vocabulary • assign • consist Section 2-Key Terms

  30. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • John F. Kennedy • New Frontier • Lyndon B. Johnson • Great Society • Job Corps • Civil Rights Act of 1964 Section 2-Key Terms

  31. A B C D Rate your agreement with the following statement: The government should provide health care for American citizens. A.Strongly agree B.Somewhat agree C.Somewhat disagree D.Strongly disagree Section 2-Polling Question

  32. Kennedy and the New Frontier John F. Kennedy’s presidency appealed to many Americans who wanted change. Section 2

  33. Kennedy and the New Frontier (cont.) • In the presidential election of 1960, Republican candidate Vice President Richard M. Nixon faced Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy. • Kennedy joined the United States Navy during World War II and was assigned to active duty in the Pacific. Election of 1960 Section 2

  34. Kennedy and the New Frontier (cont.) • Kennedy’s political career began in 1946 when he won a seat in Congress from Massachusetts. • Six years later, he was elected to the United States Senate. Election of 1960 Section 2

  35. Kennedy and the New Frontier (cont.) • The turning point in the 1960 election came when the candidates took part in the first televised presidential debates, during which Nixon looked tired and sick while Kennedy appeared handsome and youthful. • On January 20, 1961, Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th president of the United States. Election of 1960 Section 2

  36. Kennedy and the New Frontier (cont.) • Kennedy called for a New Frontier of social reforms. • He backed federal aid for education and the poor. • Kennedy also supported civil rights. Election of 1960 Section 2

  37. Kennedy and the New Frontier (cont.) • On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot and killed as the presidential motorcade rode through the streets of Dallas. • Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson became president. Election of 1960 Section 2

  38. A B C D What was the name for John F. Kennedy’s social reform plan? A.New Deal B.New Frontier C.Great Society D.Civil Rights Movement Section 2

  39. The Great Society The Johnson administration expanded Kennedy’s domestic plans with far-reaching programs in many areas. Section 2

  40. The Great Society (cont.) • President Lyndon B. Johnson outlined a set of programs known as the “Great Society.” • In 1964 President Johnson declared a plan called the War on Poverty, which consisted of programs to help people who lived below the poverty line. • The Job Corps trained young people seeking work. Section 2

  41. The Great Society (cont.) • Among the most important laws passed under Johnson were Medicare—which established a health insurance program for all elderly people—and Medicaid—which provided health and medical assistance to low-income families. • With Johnson’s backing, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned discrimination by race, gender, religion, and national origin in employment, voting, and public places. Section 2

  42. A B C D How did Johnson expand on Kennedy’s plans to help people with low incomes? A.By establishing Medicare B.By setting up Model Cities C.By introducing the Job Corps D.By pushing through the Civil Rights Act Section 2

  43. Section 2-End

  44. What areas of civil rights did groups try to improve in the 1960s, and what methods did those groups use? Section 3-Essential Question

  45. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • sit-in • interstate Academic Vocabulary • register • emerge Section 3-Key Terms

  46. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Ella Baker • Robert Kennedy • James Meredith • George Wallace • Medgar Evers • Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Malcolm X Section 3-Key Terms

  47. A B C D Rate your agreement with the following statement: Racial discrimination still exists in the United States. A.Strongly agree B.Somewhat agree C.Somewhat disagree D.Strongly disagree Section 3-Polling Question

  48. The Movement Grows New leaders and groups emerged as the civil rights movement took on new causes. Section 3

  49. The Movement Grows (cont.) • African Americans fought discrimination and racism in the North as well as in the South. • High school and college students staged sit-ins throughout the nation against stores that practiced segregation. • Civil rights activist Ella Baker—one of the organizers of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee—was a key player in the civil rights cause. Section 3

  50. The Movement Grows (cont.) • Members of the Congress of Racial Equality, known as Freedom Riders, took a bus trip from Washington, D.C., to New Orleans to see if the ruling against segregated bus facilities was being enforced. • The trip went smoothly until it reached Alabama, where angry whites stoned and beat the Freedom Riders. Section 3