OLD KINGDOM EGYPT AND HER NEIGHBOURS. FOREIGN CONTACT. Contact With…. Sinai Palestine Nubia Libya Byblos Punt. Sinai. North East of Egypt Mining for Luxury goods Sinai Desert important Arabian Trade Route Military Expeditions – Punish Bedouins
King of Upper and lower Egypt, Favourite of the two Goddesses, Lord of Truth; Golden Horus; Sneferu, Great God, who is given satisfaction, Stability, Life, Health, all Joy forever. Horus, Lord of Truth. SMITER OF BARBARIANS.Sources
Sinai Inscription of Sneferu: 3rd Dynasty
Shows an Egyptian siege of a Palestinian fortified town. The Egyptians use a ladder to scale the walls and also dig into the base of the walls.
Shows the chaos and despair of the inhabitantsSources
Relief from the tomb of Inti at Deshasha
The King leans on his staff, wearing a lion’s tail, and behind him is the god khnum and before him are the chiefs of NUBIA:
The coming of the king himself, standing behind the hill-country, while the chiefs of Mazoi, Irthet and Wawat did obeisance (paying homage) and gave great praise.Sources
Inscription of King Merenere at the First Cataract:
Show Sheshat, goddess of writing, recording the number of stock captured during a raid in LibyaSources
Records of Sneferu
Trade of exotic goods imported: Incense & Resins (used for mummifying)
Palermo Stone in the reign of Sahure:
Weni: 6th Dynasty
Begun career under
Teti I -custodian of the storehouse
Pepi I - Senior Warden of Nekhen (Judge: hearing cases in royal harem)
- Commander of army
Merenere - Count & Governor of Upper Egypt from Yebu in the South to Medenyt in the North (Collected revenue, levied labour…).
He returned 5 timed to quell rebellions.
Ventures north into Southern Palestine.
- no military experience but has gained the king’s trust -Under Pepy I
His Majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers and his majesty made an army of many ten thousands.
The army returned in safety after it had hacked up the land of the Sand-dwellers…after it had thrown fire in all its troops…and having carried away a great multitude as living captives.
His majesty sent me to dig 5 canals in the South and to make 3 cargo-boats and 4 tow-boats of acacia wood of Wawat. Then the negro chiefs of Irthet, Wawat, Yam, and Mazoi supplied timber for the boats and I did the whole in only one year.
Harkhuf: 6th Dynasty
Governor of the south under King Merenere & one of the most successful caravan merchants from Aswan.
Made 4 trips to the South: the last under Pepi II.
The majesty of Merenere, my lord, sent me, together with my father, the sole companion and ritual priest Iri, to Yam in order to explore a road to this country. I did it in only 7 months & I brought all kinds of gifts from it…1st Journey
My majesty sent me a second time alone; I went forth upon the Elephantine road and I visited Irthet, Mekher, Tereres, Irtheth, altogether taking 8 months. When I returned, I brought gifts from this country in very great quantity. ..Never before had any companion or caravan-leader who went forth to Yam before this, succeeded.2nd Journey
His majesty sent me a 3rd time to Yam…I found the chief of Yam going to the land of Temeh to smite it…I went forth after him and pacified him…
I returned with 300 assess laden with incense, ebony, grain, panthers…ivory…now when the chief of Irthet…saw how strong and numerous was the troop of Yam…and the soldiers who had been sent with me, then this chief brought and gave to me bulls and small cattle…3rd Journey
Harkhuf wrote to the young king Pepy II to say he was returning with gifts & a dancing dwarf.
Kings reply is the only surviving royal letter from OKE (it is inscribed in the tomb of Harkhuf):
I have noted the content of your letter…you have brought a dancing dwarf…like the dwarf the treasurer of the god Burded brought from Punt in the time of Isesi…My majesty desires to see this dwarf more than the gifts of Sinai and of Punt.4th Journey
Provide arguments, based on evidence, to refute the statement: Old Kingdom Egypt was an isolated inward-looking society’.