First Dynasty • A DYNASTYis a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family • Narmer unifies Upper and Lower Egypt in 3150 BC as the first pharaoh • PHARAOHwas the title of the king (or queen!) of Egypt • They ruled as an absolute monarch, as a living god, and son of Horus
The Old Kingdom, 2700-2200 BC • A time of peace and prosperty, and great building projects • The Third and Fourth Dynasties are the Golden Age • Mummification comes into use • Height of building PYRAMIDS!!!
Khufu • Khufu rules from 2589-2566 BC • Learns from his father Sneferu on how to build • Enlists close to 100,000 workers over 20 years to build a true masterpiece and a wonder of the world
The Great Pyramid of Khufu • 480 feet tall: was the tallest building in the world for 3800 years (Surpassed by the Lincoln Cathedral in AD 1300!) • Each side is 755 feet long • Weighs 5.9 million tons • Has virtually perfect alignment to true north • Stones fit together so perfectly that it is impossible to slip a credit card between them • Remains the largest man-made stone structure on Earth • 2.3 million blocks (each block about 10 tons): 12 an hour every hour, non-stop, for 20 years
Mummies • Only the pharaoh and the wealthy could afford mummification • Lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines are dried and placed in four Canopic Jars • The body is packed with natron, a type of salt to dry • Heart is left inside while brain is removed with a hook through the nose • Body is washed and perfumed and wrapped: the whole process takes 70 days!
Death is Only the Beginning • Pharaohs would have professional wailers at their funerals! • Pharaohs are buried with all of their favorite possessions, foods, and clothes for eternity • Given a special book of spells called The Book of Going Forth by Day to protect and guide them to the afterlife • We call this book The Book of the Dead
Journey to Paradise • Egyptians believed that the journey began at sundown and lasted all night • The heart of the dead was weighed against the Feather of Ma’at, goddess of truth • An evil heart was heavier and the heart and soul would be devoured by a crocodile! • A good heart was lighter than the feather and would enter paradise at sunrise of the new day.