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Chapter 5 - Language. Q: What do you call a person who speaks three or more languages? A: A polygot. Q: What do you call a person who speaks two languages? A: Bilingual Q: What do you call a person who speaks only one language? A. An American. Chapter 5 - Language.

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Chapter 5 language

Q: What do you call a person who speaks three or more languages?

A: A polygot.

Q: What do you call a person who speaks two languages?

A: Bilingual

Q: What do you call a person who speaks only one language?

A. An American


Chapter 5 language
Chapter 5 - Language more languages?

  • Language is a system of communication through speech… a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.

  • Many languages, but not all, have a literary tradition… or a system of written communication.


Chapter 5 language

  • Countries sometimes designate an more languages?official language, which is one used by the government. (laws, reports, road signs, etc.)

  • If there’s more than one official language, then everything is duplicated in the needed languages.


Chapter 5 language

  • Language is like luggage: more languages?

    People carry it with them when they move from place to place.

  • We can look at languages around the world to understand the diffusion and interaction of people.


Chapter 5 language

Key Issue # 1 - Where are more languages?

English Language

Speakers Distributed?



Origin and diffusion of english
ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF ENGLISH language originates and diffuses.

  • English spoken fluently by one-half billion, more than any other language except Mandarin.

  • Mandarin speakers are clustered in China, whereas English speakers are spread around the world.

  • Official language of 42 countries

  • 2 billion live in a country where English is the official language (even if they can’t speak it)


English colonies
English Colonies language originates and diffuses.

  • The distribution of English exists today b/c people from England migrated and est. colonies.

  • Beginning w/ Jamestown, 1607.

  • Took control of Ireland in 17th century, South Asia in mid-18th century, and South Pacific in early 19th century.


Origin of english in england
Origin of English in England language originates and diffuses.

  • People lived in England for k’s of years, but little is known about them until the Celts invaded (500 BC).

  • Around 450 AD, Germanic tribes from Europe invaded (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes).

  • Modern English people are called Anglo-Saxons and England attributes their cultural heritage to these invaders.

  • The name England comes from “Angle’s Land”

  • The origin of English can be traced to these differing Germanic languages.


Norman invasion
Norman Invasion language originates and diffuses.

  • English is a good bit different from German today b/c England was conquered by the Normans in 1066 AD. (William the Conqueror, Battle of Hastings, etc.)

  • They spoke French, which was the official language of England for 150 yrs.

  • After breaking from France, English became the official language again.

  • French and Germanic words merged to create a simpler language.


Chapter 5 language

William I, new king of England language originates and diffuses.


Dialects of english
Dialects of English language originates and diffuses.

  • A dialect is a regional variation of language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.

  • When speakers of a language move to other locations, various dialects may develop (ex: English in North America).

  • In a language with multiple dialects, one dialect may be recognized as the standard language, which is the most established and most widely recognized dialect.


Differences between british and american english
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH language originates and diffuses.

  • The early colonists obviously spoke the language used in England at the time.

  • Later immigrants from other countries found English embedded here.

  • Therefore, the earliest were mostly responsible for the language patterns in the US today.


Chapter 5 language


Chapter 5 language


Chapter 5 language


Chapter 5 language

  • Pronunciation is immediately recognizable. objects and experiences in North America.

  • Once separated, the main communication was by letters. Biggest differences are between “a” and “r.” fast, path, half.

  • American… a = / a /… “man”

  • British… a = / ah /… “father

  • British also eliminate “r” sound except before vowels… “lord” sounds like “laud”


Dialects in the us
DIALECTS IN THE US objects and experiences in North America.

  • Most differences are due to dialects of the original settlers.

  • Determined speech patterns for their communities.

  • Most dialect differences are on the east coast due to diverse groups settling the 13 colonies.


Chapter 5 language

  • A word not used nationally, but has some geographic extent is called an isogloss (a word use boundary).

  • On the east coast, we have 3 dialect regions – Northern, Midland, and Southern.

  • Some words are used in 2, but rarely all 3.

  • Ex: “pail” in North, “bucket” in other 2

  • Ex: “brook” in North, “run” in midlands, “branch” in South


Chapter 5 language

PopvsSoda.com is called an



Key issue s 2 and 3 why is english related to other languages

Key Issue #’s 2 and 3 than word differences.

Why is English related

to Other Languages?


Chapter 5 language

  • English is part of the Indo-European language family. than word differences.

  • A language family is a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed long before recorded history.

  • Indo-European is the world’s most widely spoken language family.

  • 3 billion total people


Chapter 5 language

Indo- than word differences.

European


Chapter 5 language

  • Indo-European is divided into 6 branches… Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian are largest.

  • Branches are further divided into language groups.

  • The Germanic branch is divided into West Germanic and North Germanic language groups.

  • Our language, English, falls within the West Germanic language group.


English
English Romance, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian are largest.

  • Language Family: Indo European

  • Langauge Branch: Germanic

  • Language Group: West Germanic

  • Language: English


Origin and diffusion of indo european
ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF INDO-EUROPEAN Romance, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian are largest.

  • All Indo-European languages must be descended from a single ancestor.

  • The ancestral language cannot be proved, however.

  • Evidence lies in the fact that words in various languages are almost the same. Pg 150.

  • Probably lived in cold climate b/c have common words from snow and winter, but not ocean.

  • People agree it existed, but disagree on when and where it existed.


Indo european origin theories
Indo-European origin theories Romance, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian are largest.

  • Kurgan people were among the first to domesticate horses and cattle.

  • As they spread out, they took their language with them of course. Was this them?

  • Anatolian hearth theory occurred 2000 years earlier than Kurgan theory.

  • Originated in “Turkey” and diffused from there?


Chapter 5 language


Classification of languages
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES slow among people.

  • About 50% of all people speak an Indo-European language.

  • About 20% speak a member of the Sino-Tibetan family.

  • About 5% each speak one of the following…

    Afro-Asiatic (Middle East)

    Austronesian (in SE Asia)

    Niger-Congo (in Africa

    Dravidian (in India)

  • The remaining 10% speak a language from a smaller language family.


Distribution of languge families
DISTRIBUTION OF LANGUGE FAMILIES slow among people.

  • Sino-Tibetan – Encompasses languages spoken in the People’s Republic of China. *Remember, there is not one Chinese language.* Mandarin is the most important (spoken by 3/4ths of Chinese people)


Chapter 5 language

  • Afro-Asiatic slow among people. – Includes Arabic and Hebrew. 4th largest language family. Arabic is the official language of over 2 dozen countries. It is also spoken by Muslims all over the world.


Chapter 5 language

  • Niger-Congo slow among people. – Spoken by 95% of sub-Saharan Africans. Includes Swahili, spoken by much of Eastern Africa. One of few African languages with an extensive literature.


Chapter 5 language

  • Austronesian slow among people. – Once known as Malay-Polynesian. Most common language is Malay-Indonesian (Indonesia is 4th most populous country).


Chapter 5 language

Austronesian = purple slow among people.


Chapter 5 language

  • Dravidian slow among people. – spoken by about 1/4th of Indians. The rest speak a type of Indo-European language.


Chapter 5 language

Key Issue #4 slow among people.

Why do People Preserve Local Languages?


Chapter 5 language


Preserving language diversity
Preserving Language Diversity group’s fate.

  • Thousands of languages are extinct languages… once in use, but no longer spoken or read.

  • When the Spanish reached the Amazon, they encountered 500+ languages. Today = 57.

  • Gothic was once spoken widely in E and N Europe as late as 3rd century. Today, entire branch is gone (East Germanic).

  • *People usually lose their language when they lose their military and political strength.


Chapter 5 language


Hebrew revived from extinction
Hebrew - Revived from Extinction the coming years.

  • Hebrew diminished in the 4th century BC and was used only in religious services.

  • Aramaic was spoken at the time of Jesus, which was eventually replaced with Arabic.

  • When Israel became a country in 1948, Hebrew and Arabic were the 2 official languages.

  • The people of Israel were from many countries and spoke many languages, so they all knew at least some Hebrew (symbolic uniting of the nation).

  • Had to create a “living language” for words that did not exist back them… automobile, telephone, etc.


Celtic preserving endangered languages
Celtic – Preserving Endangered Languages the coming years.

  • Is of particular interest to English speakers b/c it was the language of the British Isles before the Germanic invasion.

  • Britain’s 1988 Education Act made it mandatory that Welsh be taught in Wales.

  • TV, radio, road signs are all Welsh or Welsh/English.

  • Revival of Celtic language is a long term challenge.


Multilingual states
MULTILINGUAL STATES the coming years.

  • Difficulties can arise at the boundary between two languages.

  • Sometimes, the boundary is inside of a country.


Belgium
Belgium the coming years.

  • South is called Wallonia (Wallooms) and speak French.

  • North is called Flanders (Flemings) and speak Dutch.

  • Political divided, no bilingual signs, each selects own government, controls public health, road construction, etc.


Chapter 5 language

Belgium the coming years.


Switzerland
Switzerland the coming years.

  • Exists peacefully with multiple languages.

  • Key is a decentralized government, which gives local authorities most of the power.

  • 4 official languages: German (68%), French (18%), Italian (12%), and Romansch (1%)


Chapter 5 language

Linguist Map of Switzerland the coming years.


Isolated languages
ISOLATED LANGUAGES the coming years.

  • An isolated language is a language unrelated to any other and therefore not related to any language family.

  • Similarities among languages are not a measure of the degree of interaction between groups of people.

  • Isolated languages come from the fact that no interaction with other languages took place.


Basque
Basque the coming years.

  • Spoken by 1 million people in the Pyrenees Mtns (between France and Spain).

  • Only pre-Indo-European survivor in Europe.

  • Probably spoken over a wider area before, but was abandoned when interaction occurred.

  • Mountain homeland helps preserve it.


Icelandic
Icelandic the coming years.

  • Is Indo-European, but has changed less than any other language of the Germanic Branch over the last 1k years.

  • Colonized by Norwegians in 874 AD.

  • The language of migrants usually changes with interaction of others… in this case, they had very little contact with other ethnicities.


Global domination of english
GLOBAL DOMINATION OF ENGLISH the coming years.

  • One of the most fundamental needs in a global society is the need for communication.

  • Today, that need is being met by English.

  • People of different languages speak English to each other quite often to communicate.

  • 75% of Internet is in English.


English an example of a lingua franca
English: an example of a lingua franca the coming years.

  • A language of international communication, such as English, is known as a lingua franca. Other examples of modern lingua francas are Swahili, Hindustani, and Russian.

  • To facilitate trade, speakers of two languages would create a lingua franca by mixing parts of the two languages into a simple, common language.


The lingua franca joke
The Lingua Franca Joke… the coming years.

  • The European Language Commission has just announced an agreement whereby English will be the official language of the EU rather than German, which was the other possibility. As part of the negotiations, Her Majesty’s government conceded that English spelling had some room for improvement and has accepted a 5 year phase in plan that would be known as “EuroEnglish”:

  • In the first year, “s” will replace the soft “c”..sertainly, this will make the sivil servants jump with joy. The hard “c” will be dropped in favor of the “k”. This should klear up konfusion and keyboards kan have 1 less letter.


Chapter 5 language

  • There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year, when the troublesome “ph” will be replaced with the “f”. This will make words like “fotograf” 20% shorter.

  • In the 3rd year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be expekted to reach the stage where more komplikated changes are possible. Governments will enkourage the removal of double letters, which have always ben a deterent to akurate speling. Also, al wil agre that the horible mes of the silent “e”’s in the language is disgracful, and they should go away.

  • By the 4th yar, peopl wil be reseptiv to steps such as replasing “th” with “z” and “w” with “v”. During ze fifz year, ze unesesary “o” kan be dropd from vords kontaiining “ou” and similar


Chapter 5 language

  • changes vud of kors be aplid to ozer kombinations of leters. when the troublesome “ph” will be replaced with the “f”. This will make words like “fotograf” 20% shorter.

  • After zis fifz yer, ve vil hav a reli sensibl riten styl. Zer vil be no mor trubls or difikultis and evrivun vil find it ezi tu understand ech ozer.

  • ZE DREM VIL FINALI KUM TRU!!


Chapter 5 language

  • A group that learns English or another lingua franca may learn a simplified form, called a pidgin language.

  • To communicate, speakers make a pidgin language by learning a few of the grammar rules and words of the lingua franca, while mixing in their own words.

  • Has no native speakers. Is learned in addition to their own language.


Diffusion to other languages
Diffusion to Other Languages learn a simplified form, called a

  • English words have become increasingly integrated into other languages.

  • Franglais – widespread use of English in the French language. Combination of “Francais” and “Anglais.” French used to be the global lingua franca. Many French feel English is destroying their language. Since 1635, the French Academy has been the arbiter of the French language.


Chapter 5 language

  • Spanglish learn a simplified form, called a – English is diffusing into Spanish (spoken by 25 million in US alone). Is more of an integration of English into Spanish than just borrowing words like in Franglais. Has become really wide spread in popular culture, such as in lyrics, TV, and magazines.


Expansion diffusion of english
Expansion diffusion of English learn a simplified form, called a

  • Current expansion of English is not due to military conquest or migration.

  • It is due to expansion diffusion, the spread of a trait through the snowball effect of an idea.

  • For a language to remain useful, it must add new words and usage to deal with new situations.

  • Unlike most languages, English changes from the bottom up… ethnic languages (Ebonics, Appalachian dialects).

  • It stays up to date and even fuses with other languages.