WHERE DOES ALL THE WORLD’S WATER COME FROM? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WHERE DOES ALL THE WORLD’S WATER COME FROM? PowerPoint Presentation
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WHERE DOES ALL THE WORLD’S WATER COME FROM?

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WHERE DOES ALL THE WORLD’S WATER COME FROM?

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  1. WHERE DOES ALL THE WORLD’S WATER COME FROM?

  2. 1. Collision and Degassing

  3. 2. Comets

  4. WHERE IS ALL THE WORLD’S WATER?

  5. GLOBAL HYDROLOGIC STORES ATMOSPHERE OCEANS CONTINENTS

  6. All Blue figures in thousands of Km3 ATMOSPHERE 12.9 OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660

  7. All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE 12.9 0.001% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999%

  8. HOW MUCH WATER MOVES BETWEEN THE STORES?

  9. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999%

  10. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% 23% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999%

  11. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% 23% 77% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999%

  12. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% 16% 23% 77% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999%

  13. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% 16% 84% 23% 77% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999%

  14. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% 16% 84% 23% 77% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999% -7%

  15. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% 16% 84% 23% 77% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999% +7% -7%

  16. Evap. ANNUAL GLOBAL FLUX 577 All Blue figures in thousands of km3. ATMOSPHERE Precip. 12.9 0.001% 16% 84% 23% 77% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 Global Runoff 7% 97% 2.999% +7% -7%

  17. Is The Distribution of Water in Global Stores Changing? Are Ice Sheets and Glaciers Melting and Sea Levels Rising?

  18. Last Glacial Maximum

  19. DURING ICE AGES Freshwater increases to >3.5% Saltwater decreases to<96.5% Sea levels fall Water stored on continents, particularly in ice, increases

  20. BETWEEN ICE AGES Inter-glacials Freshwater decreases to <3.5% Saltwater increases to>96.5% Sea levels rises Water stored on continents, particularly in ice, decreases

  21. Fig. 1 Regional glacier mass budgets and areas.Red circles show 2003–2009 regional glacier mass budgets, and pale blue/green circles show regional glacier areas with tidewater basin fractions (the extent of ice flowing to termini in the ocean) in blue shading (Table 1). A S Gardner et al. Science 2013;340:852-857 Published by AAAS

  22. Fig. 3 Comparison of regional glacier mass-budget estimates.Regional estimates of glacier mass change for 2003–2009 in (A) kg m−2 year−1 and (B) Gt year−1. kg = 2.2lb, m = 3.28 ft Gt = Gigaton =1 billion tons A S Gardner et al. Science 2013;340:852-857 Published by AAAS

  23. Fig. 6 Global estimates of glacier mass change. A S Gardner et al. Science 2013;340:852-857 Published by AAAS

  24. WHAT IS “AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME”?

  25. WHAT IS “AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME”? Volume of Store = $10 bills $ $ $ $ ? $ $ $ $ $ $ Output = $1 bill per day Input = $1 bill per day On average, how many days is the “red” dollar bill likely to stay in the store?

  26. AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME Volume of Store = $10 bills $ $ $ $ ? $ $ $ $ $ $ Output = $1 bill per day Input = $1 bill per day On average, how many days is the “red” dollar bill likely to stay in the store? 10 days.

  27. AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME What happens if I increase the number of bills in the store to 20? Volume of Store = $20 bills $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ? $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Output = $1 bill per day Input = $1 bill per day On average, how many days is the “red” dollar bill likely to stay in the store?

  28. AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME What happens if I increase the number of bills in the store to 20? Volume of Store = $20 bills $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ? $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Output = $1 bill per day Input = $1 bill per day On average, how many days is the “red” dollar bill likely to stay in the store? 20 days!

  29. AS SIZE OF STORE INCREASES • AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME INCREASES.

  30. AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME What happens if I increase the rate of inputs and outputs of bills in the store to 10? Volume of Store = $10 bills $ $ $ $ ? ? $ $ $ $ $ $ Output = 2 dollar bills per day Input = 2 dollar bills per day On average, how many days is a “red” dollar bill likely to stay in the store?

  31. AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME What happens if I increase the rate of inputs and outputs of bills in the store to 10? Volume of Store = $10 bills $ $ $ $ ? ? $ $ $ $ $ $ Output = 2 dollar bills per day Input = 2 dollar bills per day On average, how many days is a “red” dollar bill likely to stay in the store? 5 days!

  32. AS RATES OF INPUTS AND OUTPUTS (AVERAGE FLUX) INCREASE. • AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME DECREASES.

  33. Volume = 1,338,000,000 km3 Average rate = 84% of 577,000 = 484,680km3 per year Avg. Residence = 1,338,000,000 / 484,680 = 2760 years

  34. Volume = 47,659,600 km3 Average rate = 23% of 577,000 = 132,710km3 per year Avg. Residence = 47,659,600 / 132,710 = 359 years

  35. Volume = 12,900 km3 Average rate = 100% of 577,000 = 577,000km3 per year Avg. Residence = 12,900 / 577,000 = 0.02 yrs (7.3 days)

  36. 0.02 yrs 400 yrs 2-3,000 yrs

  37. What Does This Have To Do with The Development of Landforms?

  38. Kinetic Energy -: By virtue of motion

  39. Potential Energy -: By virtue of position above some datum Increasing Potential Energy 3. 2. 1. Sea –level datum

  40. GRAVITY CONVERTS POTENTIAL TO KINETIC Potential Energy increased by Impounding water behind dam. Raises reservoir level Converted to Kinetic Energy to drive turbines.

  41. Evap. ENERGY IN GLOBAL SYSTEM Release of Kinetic Energy on the Earth’s surface Renewal of Potential Energy via Sun Precip. ATMOSPHERE 12.9 0.001% OCEANS CONTINENTS 1,338,000 47,660 97% 2.999%