The War of 1812 2nd War of Independence Mr. Madison’s War War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812.
MR. MADISON'S WAR madwar War of 1812 War Hawks New members of Congress, John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay want war why Great Britain….Why? • U.S. must defend its neutrality • Stop impressment • British forts • Tecumseh • Desire for Canada and Florida • Called 2nd War of Independence John C. CalhounSouth Carolina Henry ClayKentucky
madwar MR. MADISON'S WAR War of 1812 PRINCIPLES WE FOUGHT • Defend our neutrality • Freedom of the seas • Defend our self interest Madison brought the US into this war to defend the neutrality of the US. Would this be a violation of President Washington’s policy of keeping the US out of war and neutral? President James Madison
“Mr. Madison’s War” • Why Britain, not France? • Impressment: destroying US economy • British forts • Arming of Indians (Tecumseh) • Desire for Canada • No respect from British • Was convinced by the War Hawks that this was a needed war.
“Mr. Madison’s War” • June, 1812: War Hawks engineer declaration of war with England. • Unfortunately, Congress was not aware that London repealed impressment policy 2 days prior to war • New England opposed to war but Southern/western states supported the war • US at war vs. most powerful nation, but US divided • Poorly equipped US army initiated military action in 1812 by launching a 3-part invasion of Canada • The British easily repulsed the Americans
Map war1812 WAR OF 1812 • US unprepared for war. • Failed invasion into Canada. • Blockade hurt US economy…
The Battle of Thames River, Oct. 5, 1813 • US military victory led by General William H. Harrison • Tecumseh was killed during this battle
Naval Battles • The Battle of Lake Erie was probably the most important naval battle of the war • After defeating the British, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry declared, “We have met the enemy and they are ours” • Thomas Macdonough defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain which resulted in a British retreat • US Naval tradition develops during the War of 1812
highlights HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 Dolly Madison escaped from White House and took many pieces of art, furniture from the White House before the British destroyed it. Washington, D.C. burned by British, 25th of August 1814
highlights HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 U.S. Flag which flew over Fort McHenry to inspire Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. September 13th, 1814
New orleans BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS • 10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase. • 7,000 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.
New orleans BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS • Considered greatest U.S. victory to that time • Defeated British’s best without help from any country • Countries gained respect for the U.S. after this battle. • Kept Louisiana Purchase under the control of the U.S.
The Treaty of Ghent • War of 1812 is considered a “stalemate”…Dec. 1814 • Peace commissioners in Ghent devised the following terms of peace • A halt to the fighting • The return of all conquered territory to the prewar borders • Recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States • Treaty was ratified by the Senate
H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O N Radical NE Federalists met to discuss their grievances & find solutions to their problems: • U.S. Govt. fighting an unnecessary war against the wrong enemy • Sought financial assistance from Washington since their trade was at a standstill because British had placed a blockade around the Atlantic coastline of US • New Englanders continued to trade with the British during the war • Talked of secession or a separate peace proposal with England
H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O N Resolutions adopted by the convention resemble a modern day political platform: • Constitutional amendments lessening the powers of Congress • restoring Federalist influence by a minority veto • 2/3’s vote before an embargo, new western states could be admitted and war could be declared.
The War’s Legacy • U.S. gained the respect of other nations • U.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British Empire • The Federalist party came to an end as a national force • Talk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the South • Gained our neutrality and became isolated from Europe
The War’s Legacy • Native Americans in the West were forced to surrender large areas of land and move west. • More U.S. factories were built • War heroes such as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison would eventually become Presidents. • Growth of American nationalism • Enter a time period in our history called the “Era of Good Feelings”
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1817 TO 1825 • Spirit of Nationalism in US • patriotism or national oneness • Country is united, confident, and growing • 1791-1819, 9 states joined the original 13. • One political party---Republican party • Respect from Europe • Monroe first president to visit all states since Washington. • Boston newspaper declared an “Era of Good Feelings” had begun. • But, time period was not free of problems.
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS • Cultural Nationalism • Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society from books and paintings of Revolutionary heroes to Noah Webster’s blue-backed speller that promoted patriotism • Economic Nationalism • Running parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nation’s economy--------AMERICAN SYSTEM • Political Nationalism • Movement to bring about the support for national government is over the states. Supreme court decisions support the concept of national government over the states.
AMERICAN SYSTEM Henry Clay’s American System • Provide economic growth • Americans buying American goods • American self-sufficiency. • Protective Tariff to promote infant industry • Tariff of 1816 • 2nd BUS to promote a stronger economy • Rechartered in 1816 • Congress’s attempt to unite the US • National transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers.
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS • National Transportation system • Cumberland Road and Erie Canal first internal improvements to unite the US • the first steamboat on western waters was in 1811. • 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation • 1850 to 1860 the railroad is added • The Land Act of 1820 • gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash; • the West demanded transportation.
Map roads/canals • Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry…. • Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.
Reasons for Westward Movement • Population shift from the east to the West • Acquisition of Native Americans’ lands • Land easy to obtain • Economic pressures • Improved transportation • Immigration
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS New Questions and Issues • Greatest importance to western states were: • “Cheap money” (easy credit) from state banks rather than from the Bank of the United States • Land made available at low prices by the government • Improved transportation • Westerners could not agree whether to permit slavery or exclude it
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS The Panic of 1819 • Largely the fault of the Second Bank of the United States’ tightening of credit in an effort to control inflation • Many state banks closed • The value of money fell • There were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt • Depression was most severe in the West • The economic crisis changed many Western voters’ political outlook
City growth Westward expansionGrowth of cities and states by 1850
Westward Expansion • Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817) • Limits naval presence on Great Lakes for U.S. and Great Britain • Anglo-American Convention (1818) • Shared Oregon Territory for 10 years • the setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel
Westward Expansion • Florida Becomes Part of US • After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida • Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida border • President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders • Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs • Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor
Westward Expansion • Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) • Spain turned over • western Florida along with all to the east • Claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S. • US agreed • to pay $5 million to Spain • to give up any territorial claims to Texas
49th Parallel Rush-Bagot Treaty and Anglo-American Convention of 1817-1818 with Great Britain Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 with Spain Texas
monroe doctrine MONROE DOCTRINE • In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine. • Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies. • Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new “republics” in the Western Hemisphere. • Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re-conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off."
monroe doctrine MONROE DOCTRINE • Adams advised, "It would be more candid ... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war." • Monroe accepted Adams's advice. • Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. ". . . the American continents," • He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power."
MONROE DOCTRINE • Referred to as America’s Self Defense Doctrine. • It is a continuation of President Washington’s neutrality and isolationist policies. • Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas US recognized existing European Colonies Monroe Doctrine US will stay out of European affairs
SECTIONALISM U.S. was becoming divided into 3 separate sections with each trying to promote their self-interest. • SOUTH • Cotton-growingJohn C. Calhoun • _______________ • Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System • Increasingly supportive of states’ rights • Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it. • WEST • Frontier agricultureHenry Clay • ______________ • Supported internal improvements and American System. • Wanted cheap land • Loyal to the U.S. Govt. • Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue • NORTHEAST • Business and ManufacturingDaniel Webster_______________ • Wanted Tariffs • Backed internal improvements • End to cheap public land • Increasingly nationalistic • Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it. EconomyLeader ____________ Role ofGovernment
MISSOURI COMPROMISE In 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood • Threatened balance of power in Congress • 11 free states • 11 slave states • The Tallmadge amendment • prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri • All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. • Passed by the House, not in the Senate. • The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.
MISSOURI COMPROMISE After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise • Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state • Maine was to be admitted as a free state • In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 3630', slavery was prohibited