relative clauses n.
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Relative Clauses. Relative Pronouns and Relative Clauses. Relative pronouns introduce a relative clause, and relate to a noun antecedent/referent in terms of gender and number Relative clauses are a type of subordinate clause

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Relative Clauses


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    1. Relative Clauses

    2. Relative Pronouns and Relative Clauses • Relative pronouns introduce a relative clause, and relate to a noun antecedent/referent in terms of gender and number • Relative clauses are a type of subordinate clause • The case of the relative pronoun is the operative variable and depends solely on its function in the relative clause. • That means that relative pronouns may function in the relative clause as subjects, objects, indirect objects, possessors, and objects of prepositions, and they may, and do, differ in case from their antecedents.

    3. Relative Pronouns in English • “Who,” “whom,” “whose” – used to refer to people • “that” – refers to things • “which” – refers to an idea expressed as a whole clause • The direct-object relative pronoun is sometimes not mentioned explicitly in English • Examples: • The woman who came yesterday is my mother-in-law. • The man with whom I spoke is my boss. • The child whose name I’ve forgotten is about six years old. • The car [that] I bought is in pretty good shape. • Joel finally found a good job, which is very fortunate.

    4. Relative Pronoun der/die/das • In English you can sometimes omit the pronoun. The relative pronoun may never be omitted in German. • The forms of the relative pronoun der/die/das are identical to the forms of the demonstrative pronoun. • A comma must be used to separate the relative clause from the main clause.

    5. Examples using masculine forms Ist das der Junge, • der gesternhier war? • denwirgesternAbendkennengelernthaben? • dem du den Brief geschickt hast? • dessen Familie in Stuttgart wohnt? • bei dem du übernachtet hast? • über den wir vieles gehört haben? • mit dem du gesprochen hast? • auf den du gewartet hast? • in den du verliebt bist? • ohne den du nicht leben kannst?

    6. Relative Pronoun welch- • A form of welch- can also serve as a relative pronoun, but this construction is not used frequently and is therefore not recommended to you. You will be able to comprehend it easily, should you encounter it. • Wer ist der Mann, mit welchem du gesprohen hast?

    7. Wo-compounds • When was is the intended object of a preposition, a wo-compound is sometimes used instead. • Das ist etwas, worauf ich lange gewartet habe. • That’s something for which I have waited a long time. • That’s something [that] I’ve waited a long time for.

    8. Relative Pronouns wer and was • The pronouns wer(whoever, anyone who) and was (whatever, anything that) are used to introduce a relative clause for which there is no antecedent/referent. • In this case, the relative clause starts off the sentence. • Using immer or auch after weror was intensifies the degree of vagueness. • Werdas [immer] glaubt, muss ein Idiot sein! • Wer[auchimmer] fit werden will, muss jeden Tag einehalbeStundelangaktivsein! • Was [immer] du machst, gehtmichnichts an. • Waser [auchimmer] redet, istreinerQuatsch.

    9. Relative Pronouns wer and was • The relative pronoun was is used when the antecedent/referent is a vague or non-specific pronoun or abstract superlative adjectival noun: • Vague pronoun antecedents: • Das istetwas, wasichnichtbegreifenkann. • Hast du alles, was du brachst? • Abstract superlative adjectival nouns: • Das istdas Schlimmste, waspassierenkann. • Ist das dasBeste, was du dirvorstellenkannst?

    10. Relative Pronouns werand was • It is also used when the antecedent is an entire clause/idea: • Annette hat das Examenbestanden, wasmichwrklicherstaunt. • Herr Friedrichsbehauptet, dassernievorherverheiratet war, waseinenackte Lüge ist, denn ich kenne seine ehemalige Frau.

    11. Fill in the Blanks • Da kommt der Freund, in _______ Schwester du verliebt bist. • Das Buch, _______ ich kaufen wollte, war zu teuer. • Das ist der Mann, _______ du danken sollst. • Das ist der Mann, mit _______ ich sprechen möchte. • Das ist die Frau, für _______ Mann ich arbeite. • Das ist die Sekretärin, _______ ich es gesagt habe. • Das ist ein Haus, in _______ ich gern wohnen würde. • Das ist ein Land, _______ Innenpolitik mich nicht interessiert. • Das ist eine Suppe, _______ ich immer gern bestelle. • Der Kunde, _______ Einkäufe hier liegen, kommt gleich zurück.