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Chapter 2. Drug Classes, Schedules, and Categories. Objectives . Refer to page 14. Therapeutic and Pharmacological Classification. Therapeutic Organized on the basis of their therapeutic usefulness Example: Therapeutic Focus Cardiac care/ Drugs affecting cardiovascular function.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Drug Classes, Schedules, and Categories

  • Refer to page 14
therapeutic and pharmacological classification
Therapeutic and Pharmacological Classification
  • Therapeutic
  • Organized on the basis of their therapeutic usefulness
  • Example:
  • Therapeutic Focus
  • Cardiac care/ Drugs affecting cardiovascular function
therapeutic classification
Therapeutic Classification
  • Use Classification
  • Influence blood clotting anticoagulants
  • Lower cholesterol antihyperlipidemics
  • Lower blood pressure antihypertensives
  • Treat abnormal rhythm antidysrhythmics
  • Treat chest pain antianginal drugs
pharmacological classification
Pharmacological Classification
  • Pharmacological
  • Organized on the basis of how they work pharmacologically (mechanism of action)
  • More specific
  • Prototype drug is the original drug model, from which other medications are formulated; similar actions, adverse effects
pharmacological classification1
Pharmacological Classification
  • Focus: applied therapy – therapy for high blood pressure may be achieved by:
  • Mechanism of action - Classification
  • Lower plasma volume - diuretics
  • Block heart calcium channels- calcium

channel blockers

pharmacological classification2
Pharmacological Classification

Mechanism of action - Classification

Block hormone activity- angiotensin

converting enzyme inhibitors

Block stress related activity- sympatholytics

Dilate peripheral blood vessels- vasodilators

drug names
Drug Names

Chemical: name is derived from strict nomenclature established by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

A drug has only one chemical name

drug names1
Drug Names

Name conveys a clear and concise meaning about the nature of the drug

Name is most always complicated, difficult to pronounce and remember

Chemical and physical properties as well as bioavailability and action can be predicted

Classified by chemical group name

Example: phenothiazines-antipsychotics

drug names2
Drug Names


Nonproprietary name of a drug assigned by the government

United States Adopted Name Council

Preferred and less complicated

FDA, USP, WHO routinely prescribe using generic names

Examples: Aspirin, Ibuprofen

drug names3
Drug Names

Trade or proprietary name

Assigned by the company marketing the drug

By using a slogan name

Company rights to the name is for 17 years, of which 7 are spent in the approval process

Competing companies can produce a generic equivalent with FDA approval

Examples: Anacin, Ecotrin

Advil, Motrin

drug names4
Drug Names

Combination drugs- drugs with more than one generic active ingredient

Rule of thumb that active ingredient in a medication is described by their generic name

How are they identified?

Generic – written lower case

Trade name – capitalized

expense versus bioavailability
Expense Versus Bioavailability

Generic are less expensive than brand names

Substitution is made by the physician or by the pharmacist with approval

Drug formulations are not always identical

Inert ingredients – alter how quickly the drugs reach the target tissues, preparation may be different, thus affecting bioavailability

abuse potential
Abuse Potential
  • Terms:
  • Addiction: overwhelming feeling that drives someone to use a drug repeatedly
  • Dependency: physiological or psychological need for a substance
abuse potential1
Abuse Potential
  • Physical dependency: an altered physical condition caused by CNS adaptation to repeated drug use
  • Withdrawal: physical signs of discomfort when the drug is no longer available
  • Psychological dependency: little or no physical discomfort, the individual feels a need to continue the drug
  • Five categories: delineates drugs that have a potential for abuse and restricted for medical necessity
  • Classified by their potential for abuse
  • Schedule I - the highest potential (heroin, LSD, marijauna, methaqualone)
  • Schedule II – high (morphine, cocaine, PCP, methadone, methamphetamine)
  • Schedule III – moderate (anabolic steroids, barbiturates, codeine)
  • Schedule IV – lower (Darvon, Valium, Xanax, Talwin)
  • Schedule V - the least potential (OTC cough meds with codeine
controlled substances
Controlled Substances
  • Drugs restricted by the Controlled Substances Act 1970
  • Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
canadian drugs
Canadian Drugs
  • Canadian Food and Drugs Act outlines controlled substances
  • Schedule G controlled drugs
  • Schedule H restricted drugs
  • Schedule F require a prescription
pregnancy categories
Pregnancy Categories
  • A : lowest risk – studies have not shown a risk to women or fetus (Synthroid)
  • B : animal studies have not shown risk to fetus or in women if they have they have not been confirmed (Amoxil, Insulin, Prozac)
  • C : animal studies show risk to fetus, controlled studies have not been done in women ( Zovirax, Lasix)
pregnancy categories1
Pregnancy Categories
  • D : may cause harm to fetus, but may benefit the mother in life-threatening situation, another safe treatment is not available (tetracycline, Elavil)
  • X : significant risk to fetus and the women

( Ortho-Novum, castor oil)