Bell-Ringer • What is civilization? What is your conception of a civilized society? What things are necessary?
The “Three Worlds” Before Columbus Source: Ptolemy, 2nd cent. ''Map of the World.'' 1482. John Carter Brown Library, Brown University.
Native American Societies Paleo-Indian migrations: 30,000-12,000 B.C. Hunter gatherers looking for “big game” initially. After time, they start to domesticate plants and animals.
The Mayans Temple of the Giant Jaguar, Guatemala The Castillo, Yucatan, Mexico
Incas Machu Picchu
Anasazi Cliff Dwellings Mound Builders
Native American Societies: Recap • Geography dictated lifestyle. • Polytheistic religion (many gods). • Intimate connection between man and the natural world. • More equal society with gender type roles. • No real conception of land as a commodity or as something to be inherited—land was meant to serve a communal need. • Extensive trading networks. • Different languages and customs. • Flourishing cities, artwork, transportation links, ceremonies, writings, calendars, astronomy…in other words very complex. • Before Columbus, anywhere between 50-100 million Native Americans throughout North, Central, and South America!
African Societies Mauritania nuova tavola, Girolamo Ruscelli, 1561.
Warrior chief and attendants Ivory bracelet
King of Mali holding gold nugget, 1375 Pendant mask, 16thc.
African Societies: Recap • Geography dictated lifestyle. • Diverse ethnic groups. • Spiritual beliefs varied greatly (Christianity, Islam, divinity of kings). • Intimate connection between spirit world and living world. • Extended familial connections. • Small villages as well as great empires. • Extensive trading networks (including slaves). • Profusion of artwork along with rich culture. • Also contained a division of labor between the sexes. Both shared agricultural duties; men hunted; women responsible for child care, food preparation, and local trading.
European Societies Psalter Map, c. 1225
Europe Around 1400 Black Death Illustration from Toggenburg Bible, 1411 Peasants plowing in front of a castle, French manuscript, c. 1415 Otto III enthroned, c. 997-1000
Pope Urban II Matthias Grunewald, Crucifixion Templar execution
The Crusades Astronomers at Istanbul
European Societies: Recap • Europe not much more than a bunch of small, weak kingdoms. • Only a few major cities; most Europeans were peasants who lived in small agricultural communities. • Hierarchical society; authority came from above (kings and nobles). • Very patriarchal (male-dominated society). • Catholicism was the great unifying religion and institution. Pope and Catholic church wielded considerable authority. • Church cracked down on pagans and silenced heretics. • Crusades from 11-13th centuries attempted to reclaim the Holy Land (only the first was successful) but also connected Europe with Middle East and Orient. • From 1300-1500, the Renaissance develops in Italy and spreads to Northern Europe. Revival of cultural life and economic energy.
European Exploration Takes Hold… • Considering that by the year 1400, Chinese and Muslim merchants and seafarers had already explored various parts of Europe and the Mediterranean, why do you think that Europe would soon become the leaders in exploration of the New World? Why not these other countries?
Prince Henry and Maritime Expansion • Intimate knowledge of Arab merchant trades. • Drew on the work of Arab and Italian geographers. • 1420 founded a center for ocean navigation and astronomical observation at Sagres, Portugal. • As a result of his school, more precise maps are made and sail technology improved.
dead reckoning quadrant astrolabe Portuguese caravel with lateen
Portugal sails south… • Eventually, Henry’s mariners sailed into the Atlantic, where they discovered and colonized the Madeira and Azore Islands. • From there they explored the sub-Saharan African coast. • By 1435, Portuguese sea captains had reached the coast of Sierra Leone, where they exchanged salt, wine, and fish for African ivory and gold. By the 1440s, they were trading in humans, too. • First colony established exclusively for slave labor was Sao Tome.