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  1. Starter: • Write down three sentences each to explain El Nino and La Nina

  2. Human Factors Aim: To understand the human factors that lead to an increase in hazard frequency

  3. Recap • So far this topic you have learnt that some hazards are increasing in frequency and are having a greater impact on peoples lives. • We have discovered that the unpredictability of El Nino and Global warming can lead to an increase in other natural hazards • That although the number of deaths are falling because of disasters the economic costs are rising

  4. What do we learn from this data???

  5. Human factors that lead to increased frequency of hazards Related to text book pages 18 – 22 Make notes about the following slides

  6. Rapid Population Growth Growing world population means: • Pressure on land which leads to people living in high-risk areas • Growing number of elderly people • A growing proportion of very young in developing countries are vulnerable e.g. Japan (earthquakes) and Florida (hurricanes) e.g. low-lying flood prone Bangladesh e.g. European heatwaves of summer 2003

  7. Deforestation and Land Degradation Pressure on land from growing population also leads to: • Deforestation to gain farmland, which can cause flooding and soil erosion • Destruction of mangroves as coastal areas are developed, leads to coastal erosion and flooding • Farming in marginal areas and deforestation for firewood, which leads to desertification

  8. Urbanisation Rural-urban migration and rapid uncontrolled growth of cities lead to: • The development of squatter settlements and shanty towns on areas at risk of landslides and flooding

  9. Poverty and Politics Disasters tend to have greater impact on poorer countries: • Earthquakes tend to have higher death tolls on LEDCs which cannot afford preventative methods • Developing countries can’t afford to prepare for emergencies • If populations are poorly educated and have little communication it is harder to prepare for an emergency Sidr (Bang) 2007 e.g. Bangladesh rely on foreign aid for building cyclone shelters

  10. Poverty and Politics • Poor infrastructure makes it difficult to get aid to remote areas • Corrupt governments may misuse resources, making disasters worse e.g. the Kashmir earthquake in 2004 e.g. Cyclone Nargis in Burma 2008

  11. Climate Change • The possibility of a changing climate because of global warming

  12. Comparison of events and impacts! Huricane Katrina (USA-MEDC) 2005 The human story vs Cyclone Sidr (Bangladesh- LEDC) 2007 Cyclone Sidr http://www.gatm.org.uk/geographyatthemovies/weather.html Watch the video clips found on the page above and write down which place you think was most seriously damaged and why?

  13. Comparison of events and impacts- complete your table! Sidr (Bang) 2007 Katrina (USA) 2005

  14. Differences between events Why? Why? Why? As we discuss each category complete your sheet and give reasons for differences

  15. Exam Practice • Using specific examples, explain how humans can influence the effects of a hazard [9]