Training Workshop for Field Staff Survey module on Violence against Women Developed for United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Rev. 29 April 2011
Goals of the workshop • To increase knowledge about gender based discrimination and violence • To understand the goals and methods of the Survey on Violence against Women • To develop interviewing skills • To become proficient in the use of the survey questionnaire/module
Workshop Program • [Two weeks long] • Theory and practice, including field pilot • Changes may be made to questionnaire during the process • Your input is very valuable!
Ground Rules • Regular attendance • Be respectful • Ask for help when you don’t understand • Listen without judgement or criticism • Be willing to challenge your beliefs • Honor confidentiality • No one is required to share more than they want to
Defining Sex and Gender • Sex refers to the biological differences between men and women. They are generally permanent and universal. • Gender refers tothe social relations between men and women. It therefore refers not to men or women but the relationship between them, and the way this is socially constructed. Gender roles can be changed.
What is violence against women? “ any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life". (United Nations, 1993)
Violence against women includes: • partner abuse, • sexual abuse of girls • rape, including marital rape • dowry related violence • female genital mutilation • trafficking in women • forced prostitution • sexual harassment at the workplace • violence condoned or carried out by the state (i.e. rape in war)
Definition of domestic violence • A pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors, • including physical, sexual and psychological attacks, as well as economic coercion, • used by adults or adolescents against family members, most commonly against their current or former intimate partners.
“So I take a blanket and I spend the night with my children out in the cold because he is hitting me too much. I have to take the kids to stop him hitting them too. I would go out in the fields and sleep there all night. I have done that more than ten times…” Woman interviewed in Peru
Common types of abusive behaviors • Physical abuse • Sexual abuse • Psychological abuse • Use of economics • Use of children to control an adult victim
Examples of physical abuse • Slapping • Shaking • Beating with fist or object • Strangulation • Burning • Kicking • Threats with knife or gun
Examples of sexual abuse • Coerced sex through threats or intimidation • Coerced sex through physical force • Forcing unwanted sexual acts • Forcing sex in front of others • Forcing sex with others
Examples of psychological abuse • Isolation from others • Excessive jealousy • Control her activities • Verbal aggression • Intimidation through destruction of property • Harassment or stalking • Threats of violence • Constant belittling and humiliation
Examples of economic abuse • With-holding funds • Spending family funds • Making most financial decisions • Not contributing financially to the family • Controlling the victim’s access to health care, employment, etc.
Examples of using children to control an adult victim • Physical and sexual abuse of children • Hostage taking of children • Custody battles • Using children to monitor the adult victim
How common is partner violence? • In most sites, 4 out of 5 women who have been abused (by anybody: partners and others) reported being abused by a partner. • Between 15% (Japan) and 71% (Ethiopia) of ever-partnered women experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner Source WHO study 2005
Pregnancy is not necessarily a protected time “He hit me in the belly and made me miscarry two babies - identical or fraternal twins, I don’t know. I went to the hospital with heavy bleeding and they cleaned me up” Woman interviewed in Peru • In most sites 4%-12% of women who had been pregnant were beaten during a pregnancy • In almost 100% of cases the abuser was the father of the unborn child • Between one-quarter to half of these women reported being punched or kicked in the stomach • Source WHO study 2005
Physical violence usually occurs together with sexual and emotional violence • Globally, one-third to one-half of all physically abused women also report sexual violence • Almost all physically abused women also experience severe emotional abuse
An ecological framework for understanding violence Society Community Relationship Individual
Violence is learned behavior Boys growing up in families where father is violent are more likely to become perpetrators of partner violence in their adulthood.
Domestic violence is learned behavior: • learned through observation • learned through personal experience • learned in culture • learned in family, • learned in communities, schools, friends, etc.
It may be aggravated, but not caused by • illness • heredity • alcohol and drugs • lack of self-control • economic problems • anger/stress • the victim’s behavior or problems in the relationship
Violence against women is a product of gender subordination Four issues are consistently associated with societies with high levels of domestic violence: • norms of male entitlement/ownership of women • male control of wealth in the family • notions of masculinity tied to male dominance/honor • male control of decision making
Cultural differences in the meaning of violence: • In large parts of the developing world, wife beating is seen as a form of “correction” or chastisement • Beating is acceptable as long as it is for “just cause” • Acceptability depends on who does what to whom, for what reason
Beating as discipline • “I think that if the wife is guilty, the husband has the right to hit her…If I have done something wrong…nobody should defend me. But if I haven’t done something wrong, I have a right to be defended.” -- Indigenous woman, Mexico • “If it is a great mistake, then the husband is justified in beating his wife. Why not? A cow will not be obedient without beatings” -- Rural man, Tamil Nadu, India
Health Consequences of Abuse • Fatal Outcomes • homicide • suicide • maternal deaths • Aids related deaths • Non-fatal outcomes • physical • mental • injurious health behaviors • reproductive health • For example: • unwanted pregnancy • chronic pain syndromes • injury • depression • alcohol/drug use • STDs/HIV • Irritable bowel syndrome • gynecological disorders
Other consequences of violence For women: • own health • financial status • ability to work • ability to function • participate in society For children: • low birthweight • emotional well-being • behavioural difficulties • problems at school • injuries • leave home
Conclusion • Domestic and especially partner violence against women affects many women around the world -- with grave consequences for them and their children
Many women internalize social norms justifying abuse “My husband slaps me, has sex with me against my will and I have to conform. Before being interviewed I didn't really think about this. I thought this is only natural. This is the way a husband behaves.” Woman interviewed in Bangladesh
Some of the barriers to leaving for domestic violence victims • Fear for more violence • Fear for her children • Thinks it is normal/that he will change • Economic dependence • Family honor/not wanting to shame the family • Lack of safe alternatives • Lack of community/ family support • Women are overwhelmed from physical and psychological trauma
Silence and stigma Many women never talk about domestic violence with anybody “I went to my mother first..... I told little by little. Her reaction was ‘Didn’t we tell you?’ ‘You brought this upon yourself, now you pay for it’, ‘There is the child, what will you do? Where will you go?’ and so on ....” Woman interviewed in Turkey
Coping & retaliation • Women experiencing violence may utilise a range of strategies to try to minimise or end violence • Actions to prevent or reduce violence include leaving & retaliation • People may intervene to stop violence • When severe, may turn to formal and informal sources of support • Different levels of satisfaction with response • May be others from whom would like to get support
Domestic Violence Laws in [country] • [to be completed]
Resources for victims of violence in [country] • [to be completed]
VI. Survey on VAW • Goals • Study Structure • Design • Sample • Main Themes
Study goals • To obtain reliable estimates for the main indicators of violence against women • To obtain an impression of the extent to which violence is not reported to authorities
Required indicator outputs (core set) 1 • Total and age-specific rate of women subject to physical violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequency • Total and age -specific rate of women subject to physical violence during lifetime by severity of violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequency • Total and age-specific rate of women subject to sexual violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence,relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequency • Total and age-specific rate of women subject to sexual violence during lifetime by severity of violence,relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequency
Required indicator outputs (core set) 2 • Total and age-specific rate of ever-partnered women subject to sexual and/or physical violence by current or former intimate partner in the last 12 months by frequency • Total and age-specific rate of ever-partnered women subject to sexual and/or physical violence by current or former intimate partner during lifetime by frequency • Total and age specific rate of women subjected to psychological violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partner • Total and age specific rate of women subjected to economic violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partner • Total and age specific rate of women subjected to female genital mutilation
Required classifications for the indicators • 1-4: severity (for physical violence) • 1-4: relationship to perpetrator • 1-6: frequency Denominators • 1-4: all women • 5-8: ever-partnered
Criteria that were considered for the VAW module • Set of indicators should be addressed (as a minimum) • Building on instruments that have been well tested and validated across cultures • Enabling comparative results (also with surveys already done)
Central project structure • [to be completed]
Study design • Household survey • Study population all women 15+ • Not men for safety and practical reasons • Representative for whole country • Multi-stage sampling scheme • Interview one eligible woman per household (randomly selected) • [other aspects]
Ethical considerations • Sensitivity of research topic • The survey uses a “safe name” • Individual consent / voluntary participation • Confidentiality • Physical safety of informants & researchers • Do no harm, respect women’s decisions & choices • Mechanisms to support researchers & field-workers • Avoid harmful publicity • Provision of crisis intervention • Findings used in advocacy, policy making & intervention