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Photosynthesis. What is it ? Where it occurs ? How ? How is its important ? How to measure ?. Photosynthesis ประกอบด้วย 3 กระบวนการย่อย. CO 2 diffusion A = C g d [CO2] Photochemical process (light reaction) 4H 2 O + 2ADP+2NADP + +2 p i O 2 +2H 2 O+2ATP+2NADPH + 2H +

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photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • What is it ?
  • Where it occurs ?
  • How ?
  • How is its important ?
  • How to measure ?
photosynthesis 3
Photosynthesisประกอบด้วย 3กระบวนการย่อย
  • CO2 diffusion

A = Cg d[CO2]

  • Photochemical process (light reaction)

4H2O + 2ADP+2NADP+ +2piO2+2H2O+2ATP+2NADPH +2H+

  • Biochemical process

3CO2+9ATP+6NADPH+6H+triose-P+6NADP+9ADP+8Pi+3H2O

the overall chemical reaction
The overall chemical reaction
  • CO2 + 2H2O (CH2O) + H2O + O2
  • H2O light / atenna O2 + H+ +Pi
  • ADP +Pi +NADP+PSII PSI Cytochrome ATP + NADPH
  • CO2enzymes/ stroma (CH2O)
  • RuBPcarboxylase : CO2receptor
chloroplast
CHLOROPLAST
  • 1- 10 mm
  • Lamellae (membranes) : light reaction
    • stroma lamella (double lamella)
    • grana lamella (stacked lamella)
  • Stroma : dark reaction
electron transportation
Electron transportation
  • Chlorophyll a ,bCarotenoid
  • Reaction centers: absorbed PHOTONS from light energy
  • PSII: ground stage excited stage
  • PSI: Q , Photophosphorylation
energy diagram of the photosynthetic electron transport system
Energy diagram of the photosynthetic electron transport system

Light

Light

Chlorophyll a

Chlorophyll a/b

P700

Electron transfer

P680

O2

Electron transfer

NADPH

ATP

H2O

Photosystem II

Photosystem I

energy diagram of the photosynthetic electron transport

Redox potential

Fd-Ub

-800

e-

NADP+

-600

Fd

-400

e-

Solar

radiation

-200

Q

NADPH

0

e-

Solar

radiation

200

ADP

e-

Cty f

Photo

system I

400

ATP

600

Photo

system II

H2O

800

H+

CO2 reduction

O2

Energy diagram of the photosynthetic electron transport
radiation vs photons
Radiation vs Photons
  • E = hv = speed of light/wave length
  • E = energy content of the quantum (J/quantum)
  • h = Planck ‘s constant (6.626 x 10-34 J s)

400 500 600 700 (nm)

25 20 16.7 14.3 (x103 cm-1)

7.5 6 5 4.5 (x1014 s-1)

5 4 3.3 2.9 (x10-19 J quantum-1)

conversion factors for energy units used in the text
Conversion factors for energy units used in the text
  • 1 electron volt (eV) = 1.602 x 10-19 J
  • 1 watt = 1 J s-1
  • 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J
  • 1 Joule = 0.239 calories
  • = 6.242 x 1018 eV
  • 1 cal. = 4.184 J
  • 1 kJ mol quantum -1 = 1.036 x 10-2 eV
  • Plank’s constant = 6.62 x 10-34 Js
  • = 4.136 x 10-15 eVs
  • 1 mol quantum of photon contains Avogadro’s number 6.023 x 1023 particles = 1 Eistein
carbondioxide fixation
Carbondioxide fixation

Biomass or Dry weight = Photosynthesis - Respiration - Dead - Translocation

Carbon Balance

  • C3 species : Calvin cycle ; RUBP 3-PGA
  • C4 species : Hatch & Slack cycle ; PEP Oxaloacetic Acid etc.
  • Crussulation Acid Metabolism (CAM) : CO2 fixed during night

C3 vs C4 : Kranz anatomy

c 3 c 4 and cam plant

C3

Mesophyll

C4

Mesophyll

Bundle sheath

CAM

Dark

Light

C3 C4 and CAM plant

PEP Carboxylase

RuBP Carboxylase

CO2

C4 Organic acids

CO2

CO2

PGA

(CH2O)

RUBP

PEP

C3 acids

c3 vs c4
พืช C3 vs C4
  • ลักษณะทางกายภาพต่างกัน C3 ไม่มีVascular sheath แต่ C4 มี (Kranz anatomy)
  • เอนไซม์ PEPase มีความสามารถจับ CO2 ดีกว่า เอนไซม์ RUBPase
  • C4 มีอัตราการสังเคราะห์แสงสูงกว่า C3 (ในสภาพแสงจัด)
  • C4 ใช้พลังงานมากกว่า C3 ในการตรึง CO2 1 โมเลกุล
  • C4 มี RUBP น้อยกว่า C3
  • C3 ปรับตัวได้ดีในสภาพ เย็นชื้น และ ร้อนชื้น ส่วน C4 ปรับตัวได้ดีในสภาพ ร้อน แห้ง หรือ ชื้น
  • C3 มี Photorespiration ส่วน C4 ไม่มี
cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
  • The process by which active cells obtain energy. It occurs in mitochondria, there are two coditions : aerobic & anaerobic respiration.
  • The obtained energy was used for maintenance and growth of the cell or organ.
  • Growth respiration : catabolism provides the energy required for biosynthesis and constructive reactions leading to form cellular products used in the crop growth
aerobic respiration has 3 stages
Aerobic respiration has 3 stages :

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

Sucrose

NAD+

O2

e transport

chain

Oxidative

phosphorylation

Pyruvic

acid

TCA

Krebs’ cycle

Glycolysis

H2O

NADH

NADH+,

ADP

NADH,

ATP

respiration
Respiration
  • MITOCHONDRIA
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O +637 kcal
  • Glycolysis: anaerobic respiration
  • aerobic respiration :Krebs cycle; Oxidativephosphorylation
  • Electron transport chain : ATP, NADPH formed and available for other synthesis of other moplecules for growth, active transport, and metabolic processes.
slide23

Major plant metabolisms

  • STRUCTURAL compounds
  • cellulose
  • hemicellulose
  • pentosans
  • pectin, ect.
  • STORAGE compounds
  • starch
  • fructosans
  • proteins
  • lipids, ect.
  • ACTIVE CELL compounds
  • nucleic acids
  • enzymes
  • cytochrome
  • chlorophyll
  • phospholipids, ect.

O2

Chloroplast : Photosynthesis

Synthesis / Translocation

Glycolysis

ATP,

NADP

CO2

Mitochondria: Respiration; Krebs cycle

CO2

O2

photosynthesis vs respiration
Photophosporylation

NADPH formed

CO2 reduction

CO2 as substrate

H2O as substrate

O2 is product

CH2O is product

Oxidative phosphorylation

NADP formed

O2 reduction

CO2 is product

H2O is product

O2 is substrate

(CH2O)n is substrate and product

Photosynthesis vsRespiration
photosynthesis vs respiration if
Down

Up

Up

Up

Stop

Upif + O2

Down if + CO2

Upif + light

Up if + temperature

Burstif dark

PhotosynthesisvsRespiration if …….
slide26

เครื่องมือที่ใช้วัดการสังเคราะห์ด้วยแสงเครื่องมือที่ใช้วัดการสังเคราะห์ด้วยแสง

slide27

Environments

SOIL

CLIMATE

AGRONOMY

Character of CROPS

Water route

Photosynthesis

Yield potential

Etr/Etm

Pst

P pot X HI

Pst * Etr/Etm -Res

slide28

BAMnut model (Azam-Ali Sayed et.al, 2001. A Global Mapping Systems for Bambara Groundnut Production. FAO Agricultural Information Management Series)

Weather data

Water limited growth (WLG)

Radiation limited growth (LLG)

seed

Intercepted radiation

Bambara groundnut

Water uptake

Leaf

Soil water

PodW

Root

LeafW

RootW

ShootW