Achievement in Dropout Prevention and Excellence (APEX II): PBIS Implementation in High Schools in New Hampshire 2008 National Forum for Implementers of SWPBS Chicago, Illinois October 30, 2008 JoAnne M. Malloy, MSW Institute on Disability, UNH. Agenda.
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Achievement in Dropout Prevention and Excellence (APEX II): PBIS Implementation in High Schools in New Hampshire 2008 National Forum for Implementers of SWPBS Chicago, Illinois October 30, 2008 JoAnne M. Malloy, MSW Institute on Disability, UNH
Agenda • PBIS as a Dropout Prevention Strategy and the APEX II model • Key Features of PBIS-NH – How High Schools are Different • Case Example from a New Hampshire high school: • Universal Tier • Secondary Tier • Tertiary Tier
Thanks to Our Colleagues! • Hank Bohanon, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Special Education, Loyola University of Chicago • Kathleen Abate and Linda Thomas, Alliance for Community Supports • Robert Wells, Ph.D., Educational Consultant, New Hampshire Department of Education • Howard S. Muscott, Ed.D., Director, and Eric Mann, LCSW, NH New Hampshire Center for Effective Behavior Interventions and Supports • William Preble, Ed.D., Associate Professor of Special Education, New England College
High school dropouts: Why should we care? • Is there an American Dream? • There are “two worlds” in education: • Nearly 50% of all African-American and Hispanic students do not graduate in 4 years • Children in low-SES households are 3 times more likely to dropout • Children/youth with emotional handicaps dropout at rates of 50-60%
Why should we care? • Dropouts earn $9,200 less per year than high school graduates and about $1 million less over a lifetime than college graduates • Dropouts were more than three times more likely than college graduates to be unemployed in 2004 and twice as likely as high school graduates to slip into poverty • Dropouts are more than eight times as likely to be in jail or prison as a high school graduate (Bridgeland and Scheppach, www.silentepidemic.org, 2008)
PBIS-NH and APEX • Summer 2002 • New Hampshire Department of Education awards contract to create the New Hampshire Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions and Supports (NH CEBIS) with the express purpose of implementing positive behavioral support in K-12 schools • NH DOE and UNH Institute on Disability is awarded APEX dropout prevention grant (funded by the US Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education) to address dropout prevention in 2 NH High Schools
APEX II • Summer 2005- New Hampshire APEX II partners submit a second grant to OESE at the US Department of Education- awarded October 2005 • APEX II includes work with 10 of NH’s “lowest performing” high schools
Youth with EBD…. • Disengaged from school/family/community • Most likely disability group to be in a segregated academic setting • Highest rates of disciplinary infractions • Perceived by teachers as having significantly lower levels of social competence and school adjustment (Lane, Carter, Pierson, & Glaeser, 2006)
Key: Student engagement has emerged as the bottom line in preventing dropout • Dropping out is the culmination of a long process of disengagement • Keys to engaging students early on • Enter school ready to learn/early intervention • Contextual keys to engaging students • Providing effective instruction – evidence based, best practice • Creating cultural match/relevance – extend to include strategies that are appropriate to student background and culture (Alexander, Entwisle & Kabbani, 2001; Christenson, Sinclair, Lehr & Hurley, 2000; Cotton & Conklin, 2001; Cleary & Peacock, 1998; Finn, 1993; Payne, 2005)
APEX- Model Assumptions • School organization and systems are related to dropout rates (school-wide issues)(Gottfredson, Gottfredson & Hybl, 1993; Bryk & Thum, 1989; Lee & Burkham, 2001; Nelson, 1996; Rumberger, 2001; Rutter, 1979) • Behavioral problems in school are associated with a likelihood of dropping out – indicator of risk • Students with significant emotional or behavioral challenges require individualized, community-based transition services in order to successfully completehigh school(Wagner & Davis, 2006)
APEX II Model • Work with 10 high schools in New Hampshire, 2006-2009 • To address school-based systems/climate issues: • Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) (Bohanon, et. al., 2004; Sugai & Horner, 1999) • Student Leadership Development • To address issues for students most at-risk: • Rehabilitation for Empowerment, Natural supports, Education and Work (RENEW) (Eber, Nelson & Miles, 1997; Cheney, Malloy & Hagner, 1998; Bullis & Cheney, 1999) • 8th to 9th grade transition system and practices
APEX II GOALS* • Work toward implementing Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), • Provide leadership in the school-wide systems change process and support the dedication of staff time to participate in project activities, • Collaborate with project staff to develop a systematic transition from the 8th to 9th grade for at-risk students, • Collaborate with project staff to develop individualized school-to-career services for the most at-risk students using the RENEW model, and, • Develop and implement a high school student leadership initiative to focus on school climate issues. *From 2005 MOU between districts and NH DOE
APEX II Model Outcomes • Decrease dropout rates in participating schools by 50% during project period • Decrease rate of negative behavioral incidents in schools. • Increase numbers of at risk students or dropouts who graduate • Increase state test scores (10th grade) by improving the 8th to 9th grade transition for at risk students.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Defined Muscott & Mann (2006) PBIS is a comprehensive 3-tiered evidence-based systems approach to schoolwide discipline that can efficiently and effectively improve social, behavioral, and academic outcomes through the use positive, preventative, and function-based behavior support practices within the context of collaborative teaming and data-based decision-making.
APEX PBIS MODEL Tertiary Prevention: RENEW Intervention ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
RENEW: The “Red Zone” Component of the APEX II Project • For the most “at risk” students (60 per high school): • Model components: • Person-centered planning • Individualized academic programming (creative solutions and “Real World Learning” opportunities). • Naturally supported employment • Interagency collaboration and braided funding • School to Career transition articulation, including post-secondary education • Mentoring
PBIS Support Systems Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
School size varies Teachers see role as teaching behavior and academics Targeted behaviors are reflected in office referrals Teacher-student relationships are easily formed Easier to shape student behavior Outcome is educational gradual progress Larger numbers of students and staff Teachers see role as teaching academics Targeted behaviors are reflected in attendance, performance, and office referrals Impersonal atmosphere Expectation of adult behavior Outcome is educational mastery and competitive achievement PBIS: How High Schools Differ In General In High School
BERLIN HIGH SCHOOL CONDUCT ACTION GUIDE Be Responsible Have Respect Strive for Success In the CLASSROOM • Come prepared. • Be on-time—both feet must be through the classroom door by the time the bell stops ringing. • Pick up after yourself. • Respond to reasonable requests. • Complete your ‘own’ assignments and tasks as required. • Be silent during announcements. • Dress appropriately (see Dress Code). • Allow others’ expressions and ideas. • Use appropriate language and voice. • Honor others’ property. • Honor others’ property. • Engage in learning. • Maintain a positive outlook towards school. • Model positive behavior and acknowledge it in others. In the HALLWAY • Walk to the right. • Use time for intended purpose only. • Keep the hall and floors clean. • Honor others’ personal space. • Apologize if you bump into someone. • Use appropriate language and voice. • Display affection appropriately. • Model positive behavior and acknowledge it in others. • Help others in need. In the CAFETERIA • Be on-time. • Practice polite table manners. • Leave the floor and table clean for the next group using the facility. • Consume only your own food and drink. • Wait your turn in line. • Keep your hands, feet and food to yourself. • Use “please” and “thank you”. • Use appropriate language and voice. • Eat lunch with someone who is eating alone. • Model positive behavior and acknowledge it in others. • Compliment the kitchen staff. In ASSEMBLIES/ EVENTS • Participate appropriately. • Come and go in an orderly fashion. • Pick up after yourself. • Sit with your class during school assemblies. • Help create an environment where everyone can enjoy the activity. • Treat visitors kindly. • Use appropriate language and voice. • Encourage others to enjoy the presentation or event. • Model positive behavior and acknowledge it in others. revised: 9/27/07
Prepare your staff- “comfort level” Focus on ratio Developmentally- appropriate responses Actively Involve students Can include social and academic outcomes Recognizing Students for Exhibiting Behavioral Expectations In General In High School • Provide specific, verbal acknowledgement using words from the teaching matrix • Provide acknowledgement at a 4:1 ratio or better of positive to corrective contacts • Provide acknowledgement as quickly after the expected behavior as possible • Provide additional acknowledgement based on your schoolwide plan
Office vs. Class vs. Dean vs. Security must be clear Consensus is difficult Do not forget tardies- attendance Prepare your staff to redirect students Responding to Problem Behavior In General In High School • Define problem behaviors • Differentiate majors and minors • Determine procedures for responding to minors and majors • Create an efficient ODR form
Facilitate buy-in Identify appropriate data Distribute leadership Utilize departmental structures Account for diverse philosophies ofeducation Universal Leadership Teams Generally In High School • Strategically formed representative and credible group of stakeholders including administration, staff and family representation • Generally 8-10 people depending on school size
Prepare staff Discipline with Dignity Pre-teach, Teach and Re-teach Stay out of content Effective use of humor Classroom Management In High School In General • Instructional/ Curricular Management • Environmental Management • Proactive Behavior Management
Include students Use variety of teaching methods Do not rely on role play alone Incoprated into instruction Can include self-determination components Prepare your staff Teaching Expectations In High School In General • Develop a plan to teach the most important subsets of behavioral expectations in the context of the locations they occur. • Determine priorities for teaching plans based on data
Teaching Expectations Examples • Staff orientation meetings • Assemblies • Lesson plans for homerooms • Posters • Booster weeks Key Elements • Rationale • Negative examples • Positive examples • Practice Center for School Evaluation, Intervention, & Training, Loyola University of Chicago www.luc.edu\cseit
Schoolwide Expectations • Identify expectations of the setting • Develop team/plan/support • Directly teach expectations • Consistent Consequences, Acknowledge/Reinforce (Tall, Vente’, Grande) • Collect Data • Communicate with staff • On-going evaluation
Data-based Decision Making • Set Goals: “If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll end up somewhere else” • I D the Problem(scope and context) through the use of Data (Where we are now?) • Set objectives that you can measure • Develop a plan to get the work done (who, what, when where, how) • Monitor and Evaluateprogress – Use Datato assess your progress (Did it work?) (Adapted from Horner, 2002)
Outcome Data • We use outcome data to measure how we did “after the fact” • DROPOUT RATES- Graduation Rates • COLLEGE ENTRANCE RATES • GRADES- REPORT CARDS • CREDITS EARNED • TEST SCORES
Data Sources Problem Behavior Incident Reports Office Discipline Referrals (SWIS) In and Out of School Suspensions Surveys on Bullying, Harassment, School Safety Tardies, Absenteeism, Staff Surveys, Climate Surveys, etc.
If…..then Logic • If a freshman is skipping too many classes….then he/she will fail…. If she fails… then she will fall behind in credits….if she falls behind in credits… then she will likely fall behind grade-level not be promoted….if she fall behind….then she will be far more likely to dropout • Therefore, we need to intervene when she is skipping classes as a freshman
Case Study: One High School in New Hampshire • Low SES community – high poverty rate • Enrollments • 2005-06 = 573; 2006-07 = 569 • 96% Caucasian • Began implementing PBIS and APEX in 2005-2006 school year
Universal Level: High School Example • There were 429 office discipline referrals for major problem behavior or .75 per student on average in 2004-05, increasing to 1.2 % in 2007-08 • 4% received 6 or more in 2005-06, increasing to 6% in 2007-08 • Top problem behaviors were • Disrespect/defiance, • Disruption, • Inappropriate language, and • Skipping class
Universal Team:Beginning Stages of Implementation • Representative team • Ground rules and Member Roles • Team process • Team checklists • Data present at all meetings • Communication with Staff and Community • Action Plan / Decision Log
Roll Out on Disrespect: February 20081. Introduce the expectation and the skill or behavior • Be Respectful in the Classroom • Dress for learning • Use appropriate language • Listen, speak and respond politely • Keep surfaces graffiti free • Keep hands off the property of others • Keep classroom materials in the classroom
2.Share with classroom why respect is important “We need to recognize that everybody, including you, has worth and brings value to the classroom.” (Nick Guadagnoli) FYI: Seasoned teacher buy in
Further DiscussionCreation of T-chart • Create a T-chart either on newsprint or the whiteboard. • Ask students for further examples of what respect looks like and sounds like in the classroom • Record suggestions on the T-chart.
Review • Review the expectations for “Be Respectful’ that are recorded on your classroom poster
3. Identify the learning strategy • Teacher will need 4 teams of 2 or 3 students willing to perform a skit. • Hand out the skit cards • Ask students to get their props. • Students may need to improvise • Student will not get in trouble for skit behaviors
4. Have students perform skits • Each block throughout the day received different skits to perform as exemplars and non-exemplars of expected behavior.
5. Observation: Following each skit, ask the class the following questions • Did the skit demonstrate respect or disrespect? • If the skit demonstrates respect, what did it look/sound like? • If the skit demonstrates disrespect, what did it look/sound like?
Reinforcement and Recognition: • Praise and give “I got caught...” ticket • Students will turn in tickets for a daily raffle drawing. • Each classroom elects a “respect student of the week” and post these in classroom. • Each “respect student of the week” is eligible to be picked as the high school respect student week. • High school “respect student of the week” will be given the opportunity for “lunch with the principal”
Did we make a difference? • 277 reported incidents of disrespect during semester 1. • An average of 3 per day or 15.4 per week • 16 reported incidence of disrespect so far for semester 2 • An average of 0.8 per day or 4 per week This is a 74% reduction in disrespect referrals!!
Primary Prevention:Roll Out on Attendance: Data Sells! • 06-07 attendance 91% which was down from 05-06 of 94% • a month after the rollout, attendance was 95% • 07-08 end of year attendance was 92.7% • 06-07 staff reported data collection was inconsistent at approx. 70%-75% • 07-08 current staff reporting on average 85% and above • 17.5% reduction in unexcused absences • 5 % reduction in skips • 5.5% reduction in tardies
Analysis The Universal Team determined that: • Office discipline referrals had increased from 2005-06 to 2006-07 because discipline problems that were previously ignored were being reported and recorded! • The Universal Team learned about the importance of teaching, reinforcing, and follow-up. • Teachers and students report a much more orderly and organized environment.