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Chapter Eleven. Networking with TCP/IP and the Internet. Addressing and Name Resolution. IP Addressing An IP address is 32 bits in size Every IP address is grouped into four 8-bit octets Octets are separated by decimal points

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chapter eleven

Chapter Eleven

Networking with TCP/IP and the Internet

addressing and name resolution
Addressing and Name Resolution
  • IP Addressing
    • An IP address is 32 bits in size
    • Every IP address is grouped into four 8-bit octets
    • Octets are separated by decimal points
    • Valid octet numbers range from 0 to 255 and represent a binary address
addressing and name resolution3
Addressing and Name Resolution
  • IP Addressing (cont.)
    • Each address consists of two parts: network and host
    • The network portion of an address indicates whether the device belongs to a Class A, B, C, D, or E network
    • Some octet number are reserved for special functions
addressing and name resolution4
Addressing and Name Resolution
  • Static address
    • IP address that is manually assigned to a device
  • Dynamic address
    • IP address that is assigned to a device through DHCP
  • Dotted decimal notation
    • “Shorthand” convention used to represent IP addresses and make them more easily readable by people
network classes
Network Classes

Figure 11-1: IP addresses and their classes

network classes6
Network Classes
  • Multicasting
    • Allows one device to send data to a specific group of devices (not the entire network segment)
  • New addressing scheme is being developed
    • IP version 6 (IPV6) will incorporate this new scheme

TABLE 11-1 Three commonly used classes of TCP/IP networks

  • Process of subdividing a single class of network into multiple, smaller networks

Figure 11-2: IP address before and after subnets

  • Extended network prefix
    • The combination of an address’s network and subnet information
  • Subnet mask
    • Special 32-bit number that, when combined with a device’s IP address, informs the rest of the network about the network class to which the device is on

Figure 11-3: Subnetted IP address and its subnet mask


Figure 11-4: Subnetted network connected to the Internet


Figure 11-5: Network with several subnets


Figure 11-6: Data traveling over subnets

  • Combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data
  • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network has a defaultgateway
    • First interprets its outbound requests to other subnets and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets
  • Core Gateways
    • Gateways that make up the Internet backbone

Figure 11-7: Use of default gateways

network address translation nat
Network Address Translation (NAT)
  • Technique in which IP addresses are assigned a public IP address by an IP gateway

Figure 11-8: NAT through an IP gateway

sockets and ports
Sockets and Ports
  • Socket
    • Logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer
    • The socket’s address combines the host computer’s IP address with the port numberassociated with a process
    • Port numbers in the range of 0 to 1023 are called well-known ports
sockets and ports17
Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2a: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers

sockets and ports18
Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2b: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers (cont.)

sockets and ports19
Sockets and Ports

Figure 11-9: Virtual circuit for the Telnet service

host names and domain name system dns
Host Names and Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Host name
    • Symbolic name that describes a TCP/IP device
  • Domain
    • Group of computers that belong to the same organization and have part of their IP addresses in common
domain names
Domain Names
  • Symbolic name that identifies an organization
  • Top-level domains (TLDs)
    • Highest-level category used to distinguish domain names
    • A TLD is known as the domain suffix
domain names22
Domain Names

Table 11-3: Domain naming conventions

host files
Host Files
  • Text file that associates TCP/IP host names with IP addresses
  • Alias
    • Nickname for a node’s host name

Figure 11-10: An example of a host file

host files24
Host Files
  • On a UNIX-based computer a host file is:
    • Called hosts
    • Located in the /etc directory
  • On a Windows 9x computer, a host file:
    • Is called lmhosts
    • Must be located in the c:\windows directory in order to be recognized by the operating system
domain name system dns
Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s

Figure 11-11: DNS server hierarchy by geography

domain name system dns26
Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Resolvers
    • Hosts on the Internet that need to look up domain name information
  • Name servers
    • Servers that contain databases of names and their associated IP addresses
    • Each name server manages a group of device, collectively known as a zone
configuring dns
Configuring DNS

Figure 11-12: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box in Windows 2000

configuring dns28
Configuring DNS

Figure 11-13: DNS Configuration properties tab

dns name space
DNS Name Space
  • Name space
    • Refers to the actual database of Internet IP addresses and their associated names
    • Every name server holds a piece of the DNS name space
    • At the highest level of the hierarchy sit the root servers
dns name space30
DNS Name Space
  • Resource record
    • Element of a DNS database stored on a name server that contains information about TCP/IP host names and their addresses
    • Address resource record
      • Type of resource record that maps the IP address of an Internet-connected device to its domain name
bootstrap protocol bootp
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
  • Service that simplifies IP address management

Figure 11-14: The BOOTP process

bootstrap protocol bootp32
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
  • Thanks to BOOTP, a client does not have to remember its own IP address
    • Therefore, network administrators do not have to go to each workstation on a network and manually assign its IP address
  • This situation is ideal for diskless workstations
dynamic host configuration protocol dhcp
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network
  • Reasons for implementing DHCP
    • Reduce the time and planning spent on IP address management
    • Reduce the potential for errors in assigning IP addresses
    • Enable users to move their workstations and printers without having to change their TCP/IP configuration
    • Make IP addressing transparent for mobile users
dhcp leasing process
DHCP Leasing Process
  • Lease
    • Agreement between DHCP server and client on how long the client will borrow a DHCP-assigned IP address

Figure 11-15: DHCP lease agreement

terminating a dhcp lease
Terminating a DHCP Lease
  • A DHCP lease may expire based on the period established for it in the server configuration
  • A DHCP lease may be manually terminated at any time from either the client’s TCP/IP configuration or the server’s DHCP configuration
  • In some instances, a user must terminate a lease
  • Release
    • The act of terminating a DHCP lease
windows internet naming service wins
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)
  • Provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses
  • WINS offers several advantages
    • Guarantees a unique NetBIOS name is used for each computer on a network
    • Support for DHCP
    • Better network performance
windows internet naming service wins37
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

Figure 11-16: Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box in Windows 2000

addressing in ipv6
Addressing in IPv6
  • IPv6
    • Also known as IP next generation or IPng
    • Slated to replace the current IP protocol, IPv4
    • Perhaps the most valuable advantage IPv6 offers over IPv4 is its promise of billions and billions of additional IP addresses through its new addressing scheme
addressing in ipv639
Addressing in IPv6
  • Unicast address
    • Type of IPv6 address that represents a single interface on a device
  • Multicast address
    • Type of address in IPv6 that represents multiple interfaces, often on multiple nodes
  • Anycast address
    • Type of address specified in IPv6 that represents a group of interfaces, any of which can accept a transmission
addressing in ipv640
Addressing in IPv6
  • Another significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is that in IPv6, each address contains a Format Prefix
    • The Format Prefix is a variable-length field at the beginning of the address that indicates what type of address it is
    • The Format Prefix also establishes the arrangement of the rest of the address’s fields
review of tcp ip subprotocols
Review of TCP/IP Subprotocols
  • Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Telnet
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
reverse address resolution protocol rarp
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
  • Allows the client to send a broadcast message with the MAC address of a device and receive the device’s IP address in reply

Figure 11-17: How RARP works

simple mail transfer protocol smtp and post office protocol pop
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP)
  • SMTP
    • Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another
  • POP
    • Provides centralized storage for e-mail messages
internet mail access protocol imap
Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
  • Mail storage and manipulation protocol that depends on SMTP’s transport system
    • Developed as a more sophisticated alternative to POP
    • Most current version is version 4 (IMAP4)
      • Biggest advantage of IMAP4 over POP relates to the fact users can store messages on the mail server
additional features of imap4
Additional Features of IMAP4
  • Users can retrieve all or only a portion of any mail message
  • Users can review their messages and delete them while the messages remain on the server
  • Users can create sophisticated methods of organizing messages on the server
  • Users can share a mailbox in a central location
  • IMAP4 can provide better security than POP because it supports authentication
hypertext transport protocol http
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
  • Language that Web clients and servers use to communicate
  • Forms the backbone of the Web
  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
    • Language that defines formatting standards for Web documents
hypertext transport protocol http47
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)

Figure 11-18: Web client/server transmission using HTTP

network time protocol ntp
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
  • Used to synchronize the clocks of a computers on a network
  • Very simple protocol
  • Belongs to Application Layer of TCP/IP Model
  • Depends on UDP
tcp ip troubleshooting
TCP/IP Troubleshooting
  • Of all network protocols, TCP/IP is most likely to cause problems because it requires the most planning and post-installation configuration
  • Be aware of the troubleshooting tools and their switches
  • These troubleshooting utilities can be accessed from the command prompt on a server or client running TCP/IP
  • ARP table
    • Database that lists the associated MAC and IP addresses
    • Contains two types of entries:
      • Dynamic ARP table entries
      • Static ARP table entries
  • ARP utility provides a way of obtaining information from and manipulating a device’s ARP table
packet internet groper ping
Packet Internet Groper (PING)
  • Troubleshooting utility that can verify TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network
  • An echo request is a signal sent out to another computer
  • An echo reply is the other computer’s response signal
  • Process of sending this signal back and forth is known as pinging
packet internet groper ping52
Packet Internet Groper (PING)

Figure 11-19: Example of successful and unsuccessful PING

  • Netstat utility display TCP/IP statistics and details about TCP/IP components and connections on a host

Figure 11-20: Output of a simple netstat command

  • The nbstat utility can provide information about NetBIOS statistics and resolve NetBIOS names to their IP addresses
    • In other words, if you know the NetBIOS name of a workstation, you can use nbstat to determine its IP address
  • Nbstat is useful on networks that run Windows-based operating systems and NetBIOS
  • Allows you to look up the DNS host name of a network node by specifying its IP address, or vice versa

Figure 11-21: Output of a simple ns lookup command

  • Uses ICMP to trace path from one networked node to another
  • Also known as tracert on Windows machines

Figure 11-22: Output of a traceroute command

  • TCP/IP administration utility for use with Windows NT and Windows 2000 operating systems

Figure 11-23: Output of an ipconfig command on a Windows 2000 workstation

  • This utility performs the same TCP/IP configuration management as the ipconfig utility, but also applies to Windows 9x and Me operating systems

Figure 11-24: Winipcfg dialog box


Figure 11-25: Detailed information available through winipcfg

  • TCP/IP configuration and management utility used on UNIX systems

Figure 11-26: Detailed information available through ifconfig

internet services
Internet Services
  • World Wide Web (WWW, or Web)
    • Collection of internetworked servers that share resources and exchange information according to specific protocols and formats
    • Browser
      • Software that provides clients with a simple, graphical interface to the Web
world wide web
World Wide Web
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
      • Standard means of identifying every Web page
  • Unqualified host name
    • Host name minus its prefix and suffix
e mail and file transfer protocol ftp
E-mail andFile Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • E-mail
    • Currently, e-mail is most relied-upon Internet service you will manage
  • FTP
    • Manages files transfers between TCP/IP hosts

Figure 11-27: FTP login screen

trivial file transfer protocol tftp and gopher
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and Gopher
  • TFTP
    • TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers
  • Gopher
    • Text-based utility that allows you to navigate through a series of menus to find and read specific files
newsgroups and e commerce
Newsgroups and E-commerce
  • Newsgroups
    • Provides means of conveying messages in which information is distributed to a wide group of users at once
    • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
      • Supports process of reading newsgroup messages, posting new messages, and transferring news files between news servers
  • E-commerce
    • Means of conducting business over the Web
voice over ip voip
Voice Over IP (VoIP)
  • Provision of telephone service over the Internet
  • Often called Internet telephony
  • Not all VoIP calls are carried over the Internet
    • VoIP over private lines is a very effective and economical method of completing calls between two locations within an organization
voice over ip voip phone to phone
Voice Over IP (VoIP):Phone-to-Phone
  • Two traditional phones are connected through a TCP/IP network

Figure 11-28: A phone-to-phone VoIP call

voice over ip voip pc to phone
Voice Over IP (VoIP):PC-to-Phone
  • One end of the call uses a PC, while the other end relies on a traditional telephone

Figure 11-29: A PC-to-phone VoIP call

voice over ip voip pc to pc
Voice Over IP (VoIP):PC-to-PC
  • Two PCs connect through a TCP/IP network to complete calls

Figure 11-30: A PC-to-PC VoIP call

chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network must have a unique IP address to ensure reliable data delivery
  • In addition to Class A, B, and C networks, Class D and E networks exist, although consumers and companies do not use them
  • To use IP addresses more efficiently, the concept of subnetting was applied to the Internet in the mid-1980s
  • Gateways are a combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data
  • A socket is a logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer
chapter summary71
Chapter Summary
  • The use of port numbers simplifies TCP/IP communications
  • Every host belongs to a domain
  • In the mid-1980s, the Network Information Center (NIC) at Stanford Research Institute devised a hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, called the Domain Name System (DNS)
  • To ease IP address management, a service called Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) was developed in the mid-1980s
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network
chapter summary72
Chapter Summary
  • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses
  • TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, commonly called subprotocols
  • TCP/IP carries the highest potential of causing problems because it requires the most planning and post-installation configuration
  • TCP/IP comes with a complete set of troubleshooting tools that can help you to track down most TCP/IP-related problems
  • There are numerous Internet services, including the World Wide Web, e-mail, File Transfer Protocol, gopher, newsgroups, e-commerce, and VoIP