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Chapter Eleven . Toward a Tobacco-Free Society. Tobacco Use in American Society. Over the past 4 decades, the proportion of cigarette smoking among adults in the United States has dropped 30% Almost every state now restricts smoking in public places

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Chapter eleven

Chapter Eleven

Toward a Tobacco-Free Society

Tobacco use in american society
Tobacco Use in American Society

  • Over the past 4 decades, the proportion of cigarette smoking among adults in the United States has dropped 30%

  • Almost every state now restricts smoking in public places

  • The U. S. Surgeon General has proposed that America become completely smoke-free

Why people use tobacco
Why People Use Tobacco

  • Nicotine Addiction

    • Modulator of everyday emotions

  • Loss of Control

    • 3 of 4 smokers find they cannot quit, which is more difficult for smokeless users

  • Build up of Tolerance

    • Same effects build up over time, needing more cigarette to maintain the same original effects, which create dependence

  • Social and Psychological Factors

    • Habits are formed via ‘secondary reinforcers’ which keep the user dependent upon tobacco

  • Genetic Factors

    • CYP2A6 enzyme can create more activity for tobacco use

  • Who uses tobacco

    A parent or sibling uses tobacco

    Peers use tobacco

    The child comes from a blue collar family

    The family is headed by a single parent

    The child comes from a low income home

    The child performs poorly in school

    The child drops out of school

    The child has positive attitudes about tobacco use

    Who Uses Tobacco?

    Research shows that children are vulnerable to smoking based upon the following

    Other demographic factors influencing tobacco use
    Other Demographic Factors Influencing Tobacco Use

    • Gender

    • Age groups

    • Region of the country

    • Education level

    • Ethnicity

    The source of physiologically active compounds
    The Source of Physiologically Active Compounds

    • Particulate phase (small particle compounds)

      • nicotine

      • water

      • tar (phenol, cresol, benzo pyrene, DDT)

    Many of these chemicals are considered carcinogens

    Sources of physiologically active compounds cont d
    Sources of Physiologically Active Compounds, cont’d

    • Gaseous phase (gas compounds)

      • carbon monoxide (CO)

      • carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, isopyrene, acetone, etc.

    Many of these chemicals are considered carcinogens

    Acute effects of smoking
    Acute Effects of Smoking

    • The effects of nicotine is dependent upon the smoker’s tolerance and previous consumption level

    • Once the cerebral cortex has been stimulated, arousal of nicotine allows norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin release

    • CNS is depressed within the brain which stimulates areas within the heart, lungs, blood flow

    Relationship between cigarette smoking and the following conditions
    Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and the Following Conditions

    • Cardiovascular Disease and Carbon Monoxide

      • Impairment of oxygen transport

    • Cardiovascular Disease and Nicotine

      • Myocardial infarction risk

      • Sudden cardiac death risk

      • Development of Angina Pectoralis

      • Increase of Platelet Adhesiveness

    Relationship between cigarette smoking and the following conditions cont
    Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and the Following Conditions, cont.

    • Cancers

      • Lung

      • Mouth

      • Throat

        * Evidence suggests that after one year without smoking, the risk of lung cancer decreases substantially

    What are cold s
    What are COLD’s? Conditions, cont.

    • Chronic Bronchitis (inflammation/infection of air passageways)

    • Pulmonary Emphysema (destruction of the alveoli)

    • Cilia destruction (hair-like projections which assist mucus movement)

    Chronic Obstructive Lung Disorders

    Selected health concerns from cigarette smoking

    Lung disease Conditions, cont.

    Cancer risk

    Heart disease

    Peripheral Vascular disease

    Skin changes

    Orthopedic problems

    Rheumatologic problems

    Male Infertility


    Neurological disorders

    Endocrine system problems

    GI tract diseases

    Immune system

    Oral Health

    Complications in OB/GYN

    Selected Health Concerns from Cigarette Smoking

    Other forms of tobacco products
    Other Forms of Tobacco Products Conditions, cont.

    • Smokeless Tobacco

    • Cigars and Pipes

    • Clove Cigarettes and Bidis

    Second hand smoke
    Second-hand Smoke Conditions, cont.

    • Mainstream (smoke exhaled by smoker)

    • Sidestream (smoke from the burning product)

    • Environmental smoke (diluted smoke in the air)

    85% of the smoke in a room comes from sidestream smoke

    Ets effects
    ETS Effects Conditions, cont.

    • Up to 70% of nonsmokers subjected to Environmental Smoke develop some form of irritation or health ailment

    • It also causes 3000 lung cancer deaths annually

    • 60,000 deaths from heart disease is associated with ETS

    • Infants are 23 times more likely to die from SIDS when exposed to ETS

    • Children and infants becomes vulnerable to respiratory disorders and reduced lung function

    Smoking and pregnancy
    Smoking and Pregnancy Conditions, cont.

    • Infertility

    • Problem pregnancies

    • Low birth weight

    • Premature labor/delivery

    • Miscarriage risk doubles

    Benefits of quitting
    Benefits of Quitting Conditions, cont.

    • Taste returns back to normal

    • The concept of “smell” improves

    • Breathing becomes easier

    • Decrease risk of heart and lung disease

    • More energy and alertness

    Options for quitting
    Options for Quitting Conditions, cont.

    • Strategies involving the benefits of behavioral and pharmacological interventions such as:

      • “Cold Turkey” method

      • Non-tobacco sources of nicotine products e.g. suckers, gums, straws, sprays, drops, etc.

      • Smoking cessation programs

      • Support groups

      • Regular exercise program

    Chapter eleven1

    Chapter Eleven Conditions, cont.

    Toward a Tobacco-Free Society