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Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and. Human Heredity. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance. Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance. Section 3: Chromosomes and Human Heredity. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity. Chapter 11. 11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance.

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Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Chapter 11 Complex Inheritance and

Human Heredity

Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Section2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Section 3: Chromosomes and Human Heredity


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Recessive Genetic Disorders

  • A recessive trait is expressed when the individual is homozygous recessive for the trait.




Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Cystic Fibrosis

  • Affects the mucus-producing glands, digestive enzymes, and sweat glands

  • Chloride ions are not absorbed into the cells of a person with cystic fibrosis but are excreted in the sweat.

  • Without sufficient chloride ions in the cells, a thick mucus is secreted.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Albinism

  • Caused by altered genes, resulting in the absence of the skin pigment melanin in hair and eyes

  • White hair

  • Very pale skin

  • Pink pupils


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Tay-Sachs Disease

  • Caused by the absence of the enzymes responsible for breaking down fatty acids called gangliosides

  • Gangliosides accumulate in the brain, inflating brain nerve cells and causing mental deterioration.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Galactosemia

  • Recessive genetic disorder characterized by the inability of the body to digest galactose.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Dominant Genetic Disorders

  • Huntington’s disease affects the nervous system.

  • Achondroplasia is a genetic condition that causes small body size and limbs that are comparatively short.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance



Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Pedigrees

  • A diagram that traces the inheritance of a particular trait through several generations


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance

Inferring Genotypes

  • Knowing physical traits can determine what genes an individual is most likely to have.

Predicting Disorders

  • Record keeping helps scientists use pedigree analysis to study inheritance patterns, determine phenotypes, and ascertain genotypes.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Incomplete Dominance

  • The heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous phenotypes.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Codominance

  • Both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Sickle-cell Disease

Normal red blood cell

  • Changes in hemoglobin cause red blood cells to change to a sickle shape.

  • People who are heterozygous for the trait have both normal and sickle-shaped cells.

Sickle cell

7766x


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Multiple Alleles

  • Blood groups in humans

  • ABO blood groups have three forms of alleles.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Coat Color of Rabbits

  • Multiple alleles can demonstrate a hierarchy of dominance.

  • In rabbits, four alleles code for coat color: C, cch, ch,and c.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Coat Color of Rabbits

Chinchilla

Albino

Light gray

Dark gray

Himalayan


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Epistasis

  • Variety is the result of one allele hiding the effects of another allele.

eebb

eeB_

E_bb

E_B_

Dark pigment present in fur

No dark pigment present in fur


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Sex Determination

  • Sex chromosomesdetermine an individual’s gender.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Dosage Compensation

  • The X chromosome carries a variety of genes that are necessary for the development of both females and males.

  • The Y chromosome mainly has genes that relate to the development of male characteristics.

  • Chromosome inactivation

  • Barr bodies


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Sex-Linked Traits

  • Genes located on the X chromosome

  • Red-green color blindness

  • Hemophilia

Sex-Linked Traits


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Polygenic Traits

  • Polygenic traits arise from the interaction of multiple pairs of genes.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Environmental Influences

  • Environmental factors

  • Diet and exercise

  • Sunlight and water

  • Temperature


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Twin Studies

  • Helps scientists separate genetic contributions from environmental contributions

  • Traits that appear frequently in identical twins are at least partially controlled by heredity.

  • Traits expressed differently in identical twins are strongly influenced by environment.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity

Karyotype Studies

  • Karyotype—micrograph in which the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size.

  • Images of chromosomes stained during metaphase

  • Chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity

Telomeres

  • Telomere caps consist of DNA associated with proteins.

  • Serves a protective function for the structure of the chromosome


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity

Nondisjunction

  • Cell division during which sister chromatids fail to separate properly

  • Down syndrome





Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

Chapter Resource Menu

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Formative Test Questions

Chapter Assessment Questions

Standardized Test Practice

biologygmh.com

Glencoe Biology Transparencies

Image Bank

Vocabulary

Animation

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.


Cdq 1

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

CDQ 1

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Identify the disease characterized by the

absence of melanin.

albinism

cystic fibrosis

galactosemia

Tay-Sachs


Cdq 2

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

CDQ 2

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

An individual with Tay-Sachs disease would be

identified by which symptom?

excessive mucus production

an enlarged liver

a cherry-red spot on the back of the eye

vision problems


Cdq 3

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

CDQ 3

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Under what circumstances will a recessive trait

be expressed?

A recessive allele is passed on by both parents.

One parent passes on the recessive allele.

The individual is heterozygous for the trait.

There is a mutation in the dominant gene.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 1

11.1 Formative Questions

Which of Dr. Garrod’s observations about alkaptonuria was most critical to his determination that it is a genetic disorder?

It appears at birth and runs in families.

It is linked to an enzyme deficiency.

It continues throughout a patient’s life, affecting bones and joints.

It is caused by acid excretion and results in black urine.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 2

11.1 Formative Questions

Which is the genotype of a person who is

a carrier for a recessive genetic disorder?

DD

Dd

dd

dE


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 3

11.1 Formative Questions

Albinism is a recessive condition. If an albino squirrel is born to parents that both have normal fur color, what can you conclude about the genotype of the parents?

at least one parent is a carrier

both parents are carriers

both parents are homozygous recessive

at least one parent is homozygous dominant


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 4

11.2 Formative Questions

When a homozygous male animal with black fur is crossed with a homozygous female with white fur, they have offspring with gray fur. What type of inheritance does this represent?

dosage compensation

incomplete dominance

multiple alleles

sex-linked


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 5

11.2 Formative Questions

Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human

cells, one pair is the _______.

autosomes

Barr bodies

monosomes

sex chromosomes


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 6

11.2 Formative Questions

Which is an example of a polygenic trait?

blood type

color blindness

hemophilia

skin color


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 7

11.3 Formative Questions

What does a karyotype show?

The blood type of an individual.

The locations of genes on a chromosome.

The cell’s chromosomes arranged in order.

The phenotype of individuals in a pedigree.


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 8

11.3 Formative Questions

What is occurring in this diagram?

multiple alleles

nondisjunction

nonsynapsis

trisomy


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

FQ 9

11.3 Formative Questions

What condition occurs when a person’s cells

have an extra copy of chromosome 21?

Down syndrome

Klinefelter’s syndrome

Tay-Sachs syndrome

Turner’s syndrome


Caq 1

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

CAQ 1

Chapter Assessment Questions

Use the figure to describe what the top horizontal line between numbers 1 and 2 indicates.

1 and 2 are siblings

1 and 2 are parents

1 and 2 are offspring

1 and 2 are carriers


Caq 2

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

CAQ 2

Chapter Assessment Questions

Which is not an allele

in the ABO blood group?

IA

IO

IB

i


Caq 3

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

CAQ 3

Chapter Assessment Questions

Down Syndrome results from what change in chromosomes?

one less chromosome on pair 12

one extra chromosome on pair 21

one less chromosome on pair 21

one extra chromosome on pair 12


Stp 1

A

B

C

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

STP 1

Standardized Test Practice

If a genetic disorder is caused by a dominant

allele, what is the genotype of those who do

not have the disorder?

heterozygous

homozygous dominant

homozygous recessive


Stp 2

A

B

C

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

STP 2

Standardized Test Practice

Analyze this pedigree showing the inheritance of a dominant genetic disorder. Which would be the genotype of the first generation father?

RR

Rr

rr


Stp 3

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

STP 3

Standardized Test Practice

Shorthorn cattle have an allele for both red and white hair. When a red-haired cow is crossed with a white-haired bull, their calf has both red and white hairs scattered over its body. What type of inheritance does this represent?

codominance

dosage compensation

epistasis

sex-linked


Stp 4

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

STP 4

Standardized Test Practice

Why are males affected by recessive sex-linked traits more often than are females?

Males have only one X chromosome.

Males have two X chromosomes.

Males have only one Y chromosome.

The traits are located on the Y chromosomes.


Stp 5

A

B

C

D

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

STP 5

Standardized Test Practice

A carrier of hemophilia and her husband, who is unaffected by the condition, are expecting a son. What is the probability that their son will have hemophilia?

25%

50%

75%

100%


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

Glencoe Biology Transparencies



Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

Vocabulary

Section 1

carrier

pedigree


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

Vocabulary

Section 2

incomplete dominance

codominance

multiple alleles

epistasis

sex chromosome

autosome

sex-linked trait

polygenic trait


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

Vocabulary

Section 3

karyotype

telomere

nondisjunction


Section 1 basic patterns of human inheritance

Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity

Chapter 11

Animation

  • Visualizing Nondisjunction