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Irish Scholarly Resources: Digitisation, Access, and Context: 2. Making Contextual Resources Accessible for Digital Resources -- ecai.org/neh2007 Michael Buckland Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and School of Information, Univ. of California, Berkeley

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Irish Scholarly Resources: Digitisation, Access, and Context:

2. Making Contextual Resources Accessible for Digital Resources -- ecai.org/neh2007

Michael Buckland

Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and

School of Information, Univ. of California, Berkeley

Work supported by the Institute for Museum and Library Studies and by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

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Five ideas about use of digital corpora. . . .

  • 1. Understanding requires knowing the context.
  • 2. Using Internet resources should be like using a library reference collection – and as easy and as reliable.
  • 3. Design: Find the context of any document, word, name, museum object, or event: What is related to it in what it is, where it came from, when it originated, and who is associated with it?
  • WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, and WHO (“4W”) as a structure.
  • Make better use of existing descriptive metadata.

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

any word name document or event

Context and relationships: Ireland and Irish Studies – ecai.org/neh2007

Any word, name, document, or event

Connect it with its context – and other resources.

Facet Vocabulary Displays

WHAT Thesaurus Cross-

e.g. LCSH references

WHERE Gazetteer Map

WHEN Period directory Timeline

WHO Biograph. dict. Personal

e.g. Who’s Who relations

Any catalog: Archives, Libraries, Museums, TV, Publishers

Any resource:

Audio, Images, Texts, Numeric data, Objects,

Virtual reality, Webpages

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

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Kung fu movies SEE Martial Arts films

FORMERLY Hand-to-hand fighting, oriental, in motion pictures

WHAT Subject headings Cross-references in

& between vocabularies

“Automobile” in four dialects:

- PASS MOT VEH, SPARK IGN ENG (U.S. Import/Export statistics)

- TL 205 (Library of Congress Classification)

- 180/280 (US Patent classification)

- 3711 (Standard Industrial Classification)

NEED TO MAP TO & BETWEEN UNFAMILIAR VOCABULARIES

“HS 847120 Digital auto data proc mach contng in the same housing a CPU and input & output device.”(International Harmonized Commodity Classification System).

= Computer!

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

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WHEN? What happened in IRELAND in 1690s?

Time Period Directory records in Google Earth. Zoom to Ireland and 1690s. Icon for siege of Limerick, 1690. Click link for library search. Catalog records list books and show context.

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WHEREPlace name gazetteer Map

Dots link to portal

Ctesiphon (Ancient site)

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who biographical dictionary complex relationships
WHOBiographical Dictionary Complex relationships

Life events metadata

WHAT: Actions prisoner

WHERE: Places Holstein

WHEN: Times

1261-1262

WHO: People Margaret Sambiria

But ideally we need external links to the best resources!

Current project: Context finding for biographical texts.

Example: Electronic search engine pioneer.

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

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Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHO?

Click a name to search for an internet resource.

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

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Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHERE?

Trace a life-path.

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Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, 1900-04; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, 1906-07; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, 1907-17; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, 1917-1933; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, 1933-37; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d. 1970.

WHAT?

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Initial sketch for “Context Finding / Building” interface.

Save search path

Save link & notes as “stand-off” markup.

Save link & notes as embedded mark-up.

Insert / block text

Ranked lists of suggested resources for each facet chosen

Define facet

Display of search result

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Scanned text

Named Entities

Name finder

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Hovering over a named entity highlights the areas where it appears in the text.

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Named entities are linked to specific resources or dynamic searches over relevant databases.

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Initially, named entities are linked to keyword searches at the appropriate name authorities and metadata services. Here we see a number of possible candidates for “Henry V”.

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When editing an entity, the user can disambiguate it by linking it to a specific record from a naming authority. Here, the user is specifying that this instance of “Henry V” refers to “Henry V King of England 1387-1422”.

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

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Now that it has been disambiguated, the named entity links directly to the appropriate record.

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Edmund Hogan’s Onomasticon Goedelicum : Locorum et Tribuum Hiberniae et Scotiae = An Index, with Identifications, to the Gaelic Names of Places and Tribes

If searchable online, one could, when reading an Irish studies text:

1. Search it (Context finder)

2. Markup text with links to it (Context builder);

3. Markup Hogan with reverse links to the Irish studies text (Context provider) – with rich consequences.

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

links create infrastructure
Links create infrastructure

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

slide25

The reference library is needed in the digital library environment.

Paper-based reference collection: Codex determines structure and use.

Reference Genre Vocabulary Displays Facet

Dictionary, encyclopedia Topics Cross-refs WHAT

Atlas, gazetteer Places Maps WHERE

Almanac, chronology Time Timelines WHEN

Biogr. Dict., Who’s Who Persons Personal relationshipsWHO

Reversed in a digital environment: Metadata forms infrastructure.

Facet Vocabulary Displays Reference Genre

WHAT Topics Cross-references Dictionary, Encyclopedia

WHERE Places Maps Atlas, gazetteer

WHEN Periods Timeline Almanac, Chronology

WHO Persons Personal relationships Biogr.dictionary, Whos Who

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

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Conclusion:

-- The context finder supports reference queries;

-- The context builder prompts reference queries;

-- The context provider develops a reference environment far richer than could be provided on paper;

-- These tools would empower users and well as reference librarians

-- . . . and editors, publishers, and everyone else

-- . . . even from laptops in dorms from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m.

-- This approach should work with any digital corpus

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

any word name document or event1

Context and relationships: Ireland and Irish Studies -- ecai.org/neh2007

Any word, name, document, or event

Connect it with its context – and other resources.

Facet Vocabulary Displays

WHAT Thesaurus Cross-

e.g. LCSH references

WHERE Gazetteer Map

WHEN Period directory Timeline

WHO Biograph. dict. Personal

e.g. Who’s Who relations

Any catalog: Archives, Libraries, Museums, TV, Publishers

Any resource:

Audio, Images, Texts, Numeric data, Objects,

Virtual reality, Webpages

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast

slide28

We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Institute for Museum and Library Services and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

- Support for the learner: What, Where, When and Who. (IMLS) http://ecai.org/imls2004

- Bringing lives to light: Biography in context. (IMLS) http://ecai.org/imls2006

- Context and relationships: Ireland and Irish studies. (NEH & IMLS) http://ecai.org/neh2007

CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast