TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT “FOR HIGHER PERFORMANCE”
GROWING EMPHASIS TO TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT • Rapid technological development. • Managers often made to handle areas of responsibility different from specialisation. • In the era of LPG there need to be change in management style. • The entry of backward and under privileged leads to special training. • If right candidate is not selected.
Facts About Training and Development • In the past training was for people who could be speared, by people who also could be speared. • At present it has to be need based. • Training is a continuous life long process. • Training must be to achieve certain objectives. • Training could be for learning hard skills or soft skill or both.
MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT Management Development is an activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers, provide supply of managers to meet the need of organisations in future.
OBJECTIVES OF MDP • To improve the job performance of managers currently in post • Provide adequate cover in the event of unexpected short temp changes such as death, transfer, resignation or any other unanticipated development • To raise the general level of management thinking and understanding in all branches and at all levels is the organisation • Provide supply of managerial talent which cancop up with environmental changes etc.
To overhaul the management machinery. • To improve the performance of managers. • To provide a specialist the insight into other departments. • Prepare potential candidates for senior position. • Morale boosting of managers. • To keep executives abreast of changes and developments. • To create management succession. • To improve thought process and analytical abilities. • To broaden the out look of executives. • To stimulate creative thinking.
TO ACHIEVE THESE OBJECTIVES • Commitment and understanding by top management • Cooperation in imparting knowledge and skill from senior and middle management • An eagerness to learn at all levels • This is what Japanese do, life long commitment for learning by all. • Top managers in India consider beyond training • Many Japanese CEOs sit behind workers to learn intricacies of welding
EACH MANAGEMENT JOB CALLS FOR • Background knowledge • Knowledge of application • Tool subject such as statistics or maths • Management techniques such as sales analysis or CPM • Management skills – Human relation and conceptual skills
Essential Ingredients of MDP • Analysis of Organisational present and development needs. • Appraisal of present management talent. • Inventory of management manpower. • Planning of individual development programme. • Establishment of development programme. • Evaluation of the programme.
INSTRUMENTS OF DEVELOPMENT • Performance appraisal. • Performance review discussion and counseling. • Job rotation. • Organisation development activities. • Career development plan. • Training. • Periodic discussion and meetings.
PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT • All development is self development. • Development is highly individual as no two persons are same. • Individuals also develop due to his day to day experience on the job. • It is a continuous process. • It will be good for a trainer to remember these basic principles of development.
PRINCIPLE OF LEARNING – THE BASIC QUESTION • How do people learn? • Why to people learn? • Why do some people learn faster than others? • How could learning become more effective? • These Qs keep bothering a trainer and answer is not very simple as human brain is very complex.
WHAT IS LEARNING? It is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior, which occurs as a result of practice or experience. Not always good, it could be addition of information. It could be acquisition of new skills. It could also be change in behaviour.
TYPES OF LEARNING • Classical conditioning (pairing of conditional and unconditional stimulus). • Operant conditioning (In this reinforce is used). • Cognitive learning(A change in the way information is processed as a result of experience a person has had.
IMPROVING LEARNING • Level of motivation. • Feed back on learner’s effectiveness. • Participation by learners (more so for skills like cycling, swimming). • Successive approximation. • Learning and efforts. • Imitation and modeling • Meaningfulness of material • Transfer of training • Learning to learn • Theoretical vs practical • Profile of the group • Setting objective
TRAINING LOOP Identification of Training Needs Develop Training Objectives Design Training Curriculum Measure Training Results Design Training Methods ConductTrainingProgramme Design Training Evaluation methodology
IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEED • Training or training need = Skills required to perform given task efficiently--skills one posses at that movement. • Hence 1st step is to identify training needs • The success of Training and development programme will depend on ITN
INDICATORS OF TRAINING NEEDS • Complaints from staff • Complaints from customers/clients • Poor quality of work • Frequent errors • Inadequate recruiting process • Large staff turnover • Performance dates not met • Conflict among staff • New equipment/ systems
OTHER ISSUES THAT MAY ASSIST IN TNA • Accident report • Company plan, policy or projection • Exit interviews/ Questionnaire • Error rate • Complaints • Absenteeism • Quality control report • Performance appraisals • Observation, testing • Job analysis
DATA NEEDED FOR TNI • Job description of individual. • Job performance review. • Potential of individual to grow. • Managerial ability and traits required.
WHO TO FIND TNI ? • Training manager. • Line managers. • If TNI is wrong no use of conducting programme. • Line manager must review the performance with correct intention of finding TNI. Hence ask. • Do I know the present Job descriptionof my subordinates? • Do I know the problems faced by my subordinates in performing their job and how they deal with it?
Do I know how they deal with colleagues and subordinates? • Do I know his potential in relation to organisation needs? • Do I know his strength and weakness in relation to job? If answer to above data is affirmative he should be in position to provide reliable data for TNI.
The need identification should be in consultation with the subordinate • It should be examined if training is best solution • Often managers are nominated because they can be spared • Hence OSDs are detailed and not the person actually need training
STEPS A CONSULTANT TAKES FOR TNA • Become familiar with the structure of the co • Become familiar with the finances of the co • Become familiar with the staff of the co • Design a suitable questionnaire to establish train needs • Follow up questionnaire with personal interview • Establish whether the needs shown were training needs or management needs. • Design Training to fill the gaps indicated • Conduct training • Evaluate training by observing behavioural and attitudinal changes
MAJOR SOURCES FOR IDENTIFYING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS • Performance appraisal • Identify expectation and actual performance • Areas relating to knowledge, skills attitude and behaviour on job which need change can be specifically assessed • It comes from employee himself or during discussion between him and superior
CAREER PLAN (Job Enrichment / Enlargement, Transfer, Promotional) • Based on career plan……. • Training manager, employees and his superior meet and discuss the gap between his skills & requirement of future job. • This could be for present and future job.
SYSTEM INTRODUCITON • New systems and procedure, when introduced, call for intervention from T&D function. • The level of skills of employees are assessed for new system and accordingly training need identified. • Some will need more training than others.
THE LACUNA • Many a times the programmes are designed on the basis of what can be given by training department then really needed. • If training managers has the background of marketing he will be more inclined to that field. • Hence organisations must have some body who can organise any type of training.
SOLUTION • Constitute corporate training committee • Headed by VP HR • Most of the senior line managers as members to ensure commitment to training Example I (page 18 – 21) Example II (page 22- 25)
QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD • When we need to identify for a large group • Questionnaire are generally sent to employees and his immediate superior to make it more objective • Separate Questionnaire are made for different functions • Each Questionnaire has sub section for example Marketing • Questions on general marketing • Questions on demand for casting • Distribution • Warehousing • Market survey • Advertising / publicity / PR • Sales training • International marketing etc (Note:- Design questionnaires for marketing / financial / operations)
INTERVIEW METHOD • Normally used in the absence of appraisal system • A person from training department or outsider can be assigned this job • Normally done when employee strength is small • Interviewer must study job description of each manager, systems and procedure • Question must be oriented to probe the weaknesses and strengths • Distinguish between immediate needs and development needs • The process must commence with detailed discussion with dept Mgr
CLASSIFYING EMPLOYEES A model by Dr George Odiorne High Work Horses Starts 15% Job Performance Problem Children Deadwoods 20% Low Potential High Who should be trained more out of this four group & why?
Training Methods • There are range of training methods • Each has its advantages and disadvantages • Difference mainly lies in terms of trainees involvement in the process of learning • Can be represented from least to maximum • Choice of method is a matter of experience and competence of the instructor • It also depend on levels of participants
Types of Training Methods • Training in the field, on the job • Apprenticeship • In plant training • Craftsmanship • Simulating real situation • Role playing • Business games • In basket training
Laboratory training • Sensitivity training – T group, L group • Transactional analysis • Sampling real life • Incidents, • case methods/ case studies
Individualised training or counseling • Practicing specific skills • Reading and training or counseling • Postal tuition • Programmed instruction • Discussion methods • Syndicate method • Seminar, conferences, colloquium symposium Lecture methods
Learning Effectiveness By Hearing Seeing Hearing and Seeing Doing or Experiencing Touching Heaving a feel Soiling the hands Hearing/seeing/doing/ experiencing Sensory Organs Ears , mouth Eyes Ears/mouth/eyes Body % Effectiveness 30% 40% 50% 60% 80%
Principal of learning and choice of methods 1. Motivation High Medium Low Methods Business games, project assignment Lecture, group discussion case study Reading assignment Methods Case study, business game, project assignment, role playing Group discussion, reading assignment Lecture Active involvement High Medium Low
Individual approach High Medium Low Methods Project assignment Group discussion, case studies, business games, role playing reading assignment Lecture Sequencing & structuring High Medium Low Methods Project assignment Group discussion, case studies, business games, role playing reading assignment Group discussion and role playing
Feed back High Medium Low Methods Business games, role playing Project assignment Group discussion case study Lecture, reading assignment Feed back on Soundness of decision behavioural pattern practical usefulness of learning Knowledge analytical ability -- Transfer High Medium Low Methods Project assignment Group discussion, case studies, business games, role playing reading assignment Lecture, reading assignment
Lecture Method • One of the oldest most basic training method • Mode one teacher active, student passive, mode two both active and mode threes teacher passive students active • Mode one is for lecture, other two modes for other methods
Planning lecture • Who is your audience • What is the purpose of talk • What is the time available • What is the subject matter
Contents of the lecture • Introduction • The body of the talk • Develop logical steps • Illustrate with examples, visual aids • Start with simple concepts and progressively move towards difficult ones • Conclusion • Tell what you are going to tell • Tell it • Then tell what you have told
Delivering lecture • Setting the scene – Arrive in time to check every thing is in place • Posture – Mainly standing and maintaining eye contact • Appearance – Nothing out of harmany • Manners – Courteous and since and enthusiastic • Gestures • Vocabulary
Advantages • Good for passing information which are not with the students • Large no in limited time can be covered • Good for basic theoretical knowledge • When gist of research work is to be communicated
Disadvantages • Spirit of inquiry curbed • The relationship between teacher and student is 1:1 • Not good with experienced people • It produces staleness and monotony • Teachers are not aware of thoughtm process of students • Flexibility with reference to participants reaction is low • Farthest from reality
Improving effectiveness of lecture method • Make presentation for 20 to 25 minutes, then participate for 10 to 15 minutes through discussion, question answer session and an exercise. • Divide your period into two parts of 1 ½ hrs each 1st part for concepts 2nd part for case study on same. Annexure 4.1-1 Annexure 4.1-2