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Training and Development. Definition. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job

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  • Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job
  • Training is a short term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedures by which employees learn technical knowledge and skill for definite purpose.
  • Dale's. defines training as “The organized procedure by which people gain knowledge and skill for definite purpose.
importance of training teaching people how to do their jobs
Importance of TrainingTeaching people How to do Their Jobs:
  • There are three kinds of training: Job Instruction, Retraining, and Orientation.
  • The big sister, big brother, orbuddy system is when a old hand shows a newcomer the ropes.
  • When good training is absent there is likely to be an atmosphere of tension, crisis, and conflict because nobody knows what to do.
learning and teaching process
Learning and Teaching process

Andrew Sikula defined learning as the human process

by which skills, knowledge ,habits and attitudes are

acquired and utilized in such a way that behavior is


Principles of learning

  • All human beings can learn
  • An individual must be motivated to learn
  • Learning is an active process.
  • Learning may acquire knowledge more rapidly with guidance, feedback ensures improvement in speed and accuracy of learning
  • Appropriate material like case studies, tools, problems, reading etc) should be provided.
  • Time must be provided to practice learning.
  • Learning methods should be varied, variety of methods should be introduced to offset fatigue and boredom
learning and teaching process1
Learning and Teaching process
  • The learner must secure satisfaction from learning, education must fulfill human needs, desires and expectations.
  • Learners need reinforcement of current behavior.
  • Standards of performance should be set for the learner.
  • Learning is adjustment on part of the individual
  • Individual difference play a large part in effectiveness of learning process
  • Learning is a cumulative process
  • Learning is closely related to attention and perception.
learning theories
Learning theories
  • Behavior approach
  • Gestalt approach
  • Model approach
  • Instruction
need for training
Need for Training
  • To match the employee specifications with the job requirements and organizational needs. An employee specification may not exactly suit the requirement of the job and the of his past experiences, qualification skills, knowledge. Etc. Thus management may find deviation between employee’s present specifications and the job requirement and organizational needs. Training is needed to fill these gaps

Organizational viability and the transformation process. The primary goal of the most organization is their viability and efficiency. But the organizational viability is continuously influence by environment pressures .If the organizations does not adapt itself to the changing factors in the environment .It will loose market share. If the organization desires to adapt to these changes, first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to the organizational efficiency and to cope with changing environment

Need for Training


Technical advances .

  • Organizational complexity
  • Change in the job assignment. Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promised higher level in the organization, to equip old employees with the advanced discipline, techniques and technology.

Need for Training

  • To prepare the employees both new and old to meet the present as well as the changing requirement of the job and the organization
  • To prevent obsolescence.
  • To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skill the need for intelligent performance of specific job


  • To prepare employees for high level tasks.

To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts ,information and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.

  • To build up the second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions.
  • To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with the view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from over specializations.


  • To develop the potentialities of people for next job level.
  • To ensure smooth and efficient working of the department.
  • To ensure economical output of required quality.
  • To promote individual and collective morale ,a sense of responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships.
the benefits of training
The Benefits of Training
  • Gives the supervisor more time to manage, standardized performance, less absenteeism, less turnover, reduced tension, consistency, lower costs, more customers, better service
  • Gives the workers confidence to do their jobs, reduces tension, boost morale and job satisfaction, reduces injuries and accidents, gives them a chance to advance.
  • Gives the business a good image and more profit.
then why is training often neglected
Then why is training often neglected?
  • Urgency of need
  • Training time
  • Costs
  • Employee turnover
  • Short-term worker
  • Diversity of worker
  • Kinds of jobs (simple-complex)
  • Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and how
who will do the training
Who will do the Training?
  • The magic apron method: people train themselves the easiest ways to get the job done, and what will keep them from getting into trouble.
  • The person that is leaving trains: teaches shortcuts and ways of breaking the rules.
  • Big sister, big brother, or buddy method: passes on bad habits and may resent new person as a competitor.
  • The logical person to train new workers is YOURSELF!
types of training
Types of Training
  • Supervisory training
  • Sales Training
  • Clerical Training
principles of training
Principles of training
  • Motivation
  • Progressive information
  • Reinforcement
  • Practice
  • Full vs. part
  • Individual differences
how do employees learn the best
How do Employees Learn the Best?
  • Learning is the acquisition of skills, knowledge, or attitudes.
  • The adult learning theory is a field of research that examines how adults learn. A number of the following tips come from the adult leaning theory.
how employees learn the best
How employees learn the best:
  • When they are actively involved in the learning process-(to do this choose a appropriate teaching method).
  • Training is relevant and practical.
  • Training material is organized and presented in chunks.
  • Training is in an informal, quiet, and comfortable setting.
  • When they have a good trainer.
  • When they receive feedback on performance.
  • When they are rewarded.
areas of training
Areas of training
  • Companies policies and procedures
  • Training in specific skills
  • Human relation training
  • Problem solving training
  • Managerial and supervisory training.
  • Apprentice training
steps in training program
Steps in Training Program

The essential steps in training procedures are:

  • Preparing the instructor
  • Preparing the trainee
  • Getting ready to teach
      • Planning the programme
      • Preparing the instructor’s outline
      • Do not try to cover too much material
      • Keep the session moving along logically
      • Discuss each item in depth
      • Repeat but in different words
      • Take the material from standardized text.
      • Teach about standards for the trainees
      • Remember your standards before you teach
      • Take periodical progress of the trainees

Steps in Training Program

4.Presenting the Operation

  • Explain the sequence of the entire job
  • Do the job step by step according to procedure
  • Explain each step
  • Have trainee explain the entire job.

5.Try out the Trainee’s Performance.

  • Follow up.
evaluation of training program
Evaluation of Training program
  • Formal evaluation: uses observation, interviews, and surveys to monitor training while its going on.
  • Summative evaluation: measures results when training is complete in five ways:

1. Reaction

2. Knowledge

3. Behavior

4. Attitudes


job instruction training jit
Job Instruction Training (JIT)
  • Also called on the job training.
  • Consists of 4 steps:

1. Prepare the learner

2. Demonstrate the task

3. Have the worker do the task

4. Follow through: put the worker on the job, correcting and supporting as nessicary.

classroom training skills
Classroom Training Skills
  • Be aware of appropriate body language and speech.
  • Watch how you talk to employees. Covey respect and appreciation.
  • Handle problem behaviors in an effective manner.
  • Avoid time wasters.
  • Facilitate employee participation and discussion.
  • Use visual aids to avoid constantly referring to notes.
techniques of training
Techniques of training
  • Off –the job training methods
  • Lectures
  • Conferences and seminars
  • Case studies
  • Role-playing
  • Business games
  • Programmed instruction
  • Sensitivity training

On –the job training methods

  • Job rotation
  • Coaching
  • Understudy
  • Multiple management
re training
  • Needed when changes are made that affect the job, employees performance drops below par, or when the worker has not mastered a particular technique.
  • A positive one-on-one approach to retraining is referred to a coaching.
  • Coaching is a two part process.

1. Observation of the employees performance.

2. Conversation between manager and employee focusing on job performance.

orientation the pre job phase of training
Orientation:the pre-job phase of training.
  • Introduces each new employee to the job and the workplace.
  • Tells new staff members what they want to know and what the company wants them to know.
  • Communicates information give out a employee handbook.
  • Creates positive employee attitudes toward the company and the job.
overcoming obstacles to learning
Overcoming Obstacles to Learning
  • Reduce fear with a positive approach (convey confidence in the worker).
  • Increase motivation: emphasize whatever is of value to the learner, make the program form a series of small successes, build in incentives and rewards.
  • Limited abilities: adjust teaching to learners level.
  • Laziness, indifference, resistance: May mean a problem worker.
overcoming obstacles to learning1
Overcoming Obstacles to Learning
  • Teaching not adapted to learners: Deal with people as they are (teach people not tasks), keep it simple, involve all the senses.
  • Poor training program: revise to include objectives.
  • Poor instructor: The trainer needs to know the job, be a good communicator + leader, sensitive, patient, helpful, etc.