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Classification History - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Classification History. Classification History. Taxonomy : Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms: Bacteria Archaea Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia. prokaryotes. eukaryotes. Plantae.

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slide2

Classification

History

  • Taxonomy: Branch of biology that groups all life according to their characteristics and history
  • All life on earth is placed into 1 of 6 kingdoms:
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia

prokaryotes

eukaryotes

classification is always a work in progress

Plantae

Animalia

Protista

Archaea

Monera

Bacteria

Fungi

Where did it all start?

Classification is always a work in progress
  • Until 1866: only two kingdoms,Animalia and Plantae
  • 1866: all single-celled organisms moved to kingdom Protista
  • 1938: prokaryotes moved to kingdom Monera
  • 1959: fungi moved to own kingdom
  • 1977: kingdom Monerasplit into kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea
the 6 kingdoms are classified into domains
The 6 kingdoms are classified into domains
  • The three domains in the tree of life are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
  • Domains are above the kingdom level
    • Domain model more clearly shows prokaryotic diversity

From here, we will focus on the kingdoms, but don’t forget about the DOMAINS!

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Carolus

Linnaeus

  • Developed classification system based on physical features
  • Many rules still used today
    • Binomial Nomenclature: System of giving every organism 2 names
    • 1st word: Genus (broad)
    • 2nd word: Species (specific)
  • Example: House cat
    • Genus: Felis (cougars, lions, tigers, cheetahs, etc…)
    • Species: catus
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Binomial Format

  • When Writing:
    • Genus capitalized
    • species lowercase
    • Underlined entirely

Ex: Homo sapiens

  • When Typing:
    • Same, except use italics

Ex: Homo sapiens

Canislupis

Tyto alba Quercus alba

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Taxa

Kings

Play

Chess

On

Fine

Glass

Surfaces

  • 7 individual levels (taxa) used to classify organisms

Kingdom (broadest)

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species (specific)

  • Allows relationships to be clearly seen
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Kingdom

Phylum

Cheetah

Classification

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

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Kingdom

Phylum

Red Wolf

Classification

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

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Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Human

Classification

Genus

Species

slide13

Killer whale classification

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

which two organisms are most related to one another
Which two organisms are most related to one another?

Killer Whale

K = Animals

P = Chordata

C = Mammals

O = Cetacea

F = Delphinidae

G = Orcinus

S = orca

Red Wolf

K = Animals

P = Chordata

C = Mammals

O = Carnivora

F = Canidae

G = Canis

S = vulpes

Polar Bear

K = Animals

P = Chordata

C = Mammals

O = Carnivora

F = Ursidae

G = Ursus

S = arctos

using a dichotomous key
Using a dichotomous key

What is this item?

using a dichotomous key1
Using a dichotomous key

What is this item?

review
Who created the classification system used today?

Name the 6 kingdoms of life.

Which kingdom(s) are prokaryotic?

Which kingdom(s) may be unicellular?

Which kingdom(s) are bacteria?

Which two taxa make up an organisms binomial name?

Place the 7 levels of taxonomy in order from largest to smallest.

Name the 7 human taxa, from largest to smallest.

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