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The Cell. The basic unit of life. TAKS. Objective 2 – The student will demonstrate an understanding of living systems and the environment. TEKS Science Concepts.

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The cell l.jpg

The Cell

The basic unit of life


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TAKS

  • Objective 2 – The student will demonstrate an understanding of living systems and the environment.


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TEKS Science Concepts

  • B4 - The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to:

  • (A) identify the parts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

  • B3 - The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

  • (F) research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.


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Engage: Cell History

  • Cytology- study of cells

  • 1665 English Scientist Robert Hooke

  • Used a microscope to examine cork (plant)

  • Hooke called what he saw "Cells"


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Cell History

  • Robert Brown

    • discovered the nucleus in 1833.

  • Matthias Schleiden

    • German Botanist Matthias Schleiden

    • 1838

    • ALL PLANTS "ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS".

  • Theodor Schwann

    • Also in 1838,

    • discovered that animals were made of cells


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Cell History

  • Rudolf Virchow

    • 1855, German Physician

    • " THAT CELLS ONLY COME FROM OTHER CELLS".

  • His statement debunked "Theory of Spontaneous Generation" 


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Cell Theory

  • The COMBINED work of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow make up the modernCELL THEORY.


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The Cell Theory states that:

1. All living things are composed of a cell or cells.

2. Cells are the basic unit of life.

3. All cells come from preexisting cells.


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Explore

  • Plant vs. Animal Lab

  • You will observe different types of plant and animal cells under the microscope and record your observations.

  • Gel Cells for Diffusion

  • You will build a model of a cell to understand why cells when they reach a certain size stop growing.

  • Edible Model Cells

  • Using your textbook and other resources, you will make a model of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell using gelatin and other edible materials. The gelatin will represent the cell membrane/cytoplasm and other edible components will be representative of the cellular organelles.


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Explain: Cell Diversity

  • Cells within the same organism show Enormous Diversity in:

    • Size

    • Shape

    • Internal Organization


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1. Cell Size

  • Female Egg - largest cell in the human body; seen without the aid of a microscope

  • Most cells are visible only with a microscope.


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Cells are small for 2 Reasons

Reason 1:

  • Limited in size by the RATIO between their Outer Surface Area and Their Volume. 

    A small cell has more SURFACE AREA than a large cell for a GIVEN VOLUME OF CYTOPLASM. 


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Cells are Small

Reason 2:

  • THE CELL'S NUCLEUS (THE BRAIN) CAN ONLY CONTROL A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF LIVING, ACTIVE CYTOPLASM.


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2. Cell Shape

  • Diversity of form reflects a diversity of function.

  • THE SHAPE OF A CELL DEPENDS ON ITS FUNCTION.


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Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

3. Internal Organization

Prokaryotic Cell

Eukaryotic Cell

Nucleus

Organelles


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Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

Nucleus

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

Vacuoles

Mitochondria

Cytoskeleton

Cell membrane

Contain DNA

Ribosomes

Cytoplasm

Compare and Contrast


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Prokaryotic Examples

ONLY Bacteria


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EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Two Kinds:

Plant and Animal



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Smooth endoplasmic

reticulum

Vacuole

Ribosome

(free)

Chloroplast

Ribosome

(attached)

Cell

Membrane

Nuclear

envelope

Cell wall

Nucleolus

Golgi apparatus

Nucleus

Mitochondrion

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Section 7-2

Plant Cell


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Venn Diagrams

Animal Cells

Plant Cells

Cell Wall

Chloroplasts

Cell membrane

Ribosomes

Nucleus

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

Vacuoles

Mitochondria

Cytoskeleton

Centrioles

Compare and Contrast


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Internal Organization

  • Cells contain ORGANELLES.

  • Cell Components that PERFORMS SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS FOR THE CELL.


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Cellular Organelles

  • The Plasma membrane

    • The boundary of the cell.

    • Composed of three distinct layers.

    • Two layers of fat and one layer of protein.


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The Nucleus

  • Brain of Cell

  • Bordered by a porous membrane - nuclear envelope.

  • Contains thin fibers of DNA and protein called Chromatin.

  • Rod Shaped Chromosomes

  • Contains a small round nucleolus

    • produces ribosomal RNA which makes ribosomes.


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Ribosomes

  • Small non-membrane bound organelles.

  • Contain two sub units

  • Site of protein synthesis.

  • Protein factory of the cell

  • Either free floating or attached to the Endoplasmic Reticulum.


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Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Complex network of transport channels.

  • Two types:

  • Smooth- ribosome free and functions in poison detoxification.

  • Rough - contains ribosomes and releases newly made protein from the cell.


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Golgi Apparatus

  • A series of flattened sacs that modifies, packages, stores, and transports materials out of the cell.

  • Works with the ribosomes and Endoplasmic Reticulum.


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Lysosomes

  • Recycling Center

    • Recycle cellular debris

  • Membrane bound organelle containing a variety of enzymes.

  • Internal pH is 5.

  • Help digest food particles inside or out side the cell.


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Centrioles

  • Found only in animal cells

  • Paired organelles found together near the nucleus, at right angles to each other.

  • Role in building cilia and flagella

  • Play a role in cellular reproduction


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Cell membrane

Endoplasmic

reticulum

Microtubule

Microfilament

Ribosomes

Mitochondrion

Cytoskeleton


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Cytoskeleton

  • Framework of the cell

  • Contains small microfilaments and larger microtubules.

  • They support the cell, giving it its shape and help with the movement of its organelles.


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Mitochondrion

  • Double Membranous

  • It’s the size of a bacterium

  • Contains its own DNA; mDNA

  • Produces high energy compound ATP


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The Chloroplast

  • Double membrane

  • Center section contains grana

  • Thylakoid (coins) make up the grana.

  • Stroma - gel-like material surrounding grana

  • Found in plants and algae.


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The Vacuole

  • Sacs that help in food digestion or helping the cell maintain its water balance.

  • Found mostly in plants and protists.


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Cell Wall

  • Extra structure surrounding its plasma membrane in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria.

  • Cellulose – Plants

  • Chitin – Fungi

  • Peptidoglycan - Bacteria


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Section 7-1

Review

A. The Discovery of the Cell

1.Robert Hooke

2.The Cell Theory

B. Exploring Cell Diversity

1. Size

2. Shape

3. Internal Organization

C. Two types of cells

1. Prokaryote

2. Eukaryote


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Eukaryotic

1. Contains a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.

2. Rod shaped chromosomes

3. Found in all kingdoms except the Eubacteria and Archaebacteria

Prokaryotic

Does not contain a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.

Circular chromosome

Found only in the Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Kingdoms

Cell Types (Review)


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Elaborate

  • Modeling the Animal Cell

  • You will create a cellular game. By following the procedure, you will create a closed circuit using a battery, wires, paper spreaders, and an LED light that will turn on when they match up the organelle with its correct function


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Evaluate

  • The students will create an edible cell model and correctly identify the location and function of at least 8 organelles.

  • The students will correctly match at least 10 organelles with their function, using the animal and plant cell model.

  • The students will draw and label both a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell. Pass/Fail

  • The students will complete a Venn diagram comparing both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells showing at least two differences.


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