MRSA Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus By Jackson Cullop
History • 1950’s Europe discovered strains of S. aureus resistant to penicillin • 1980’s S. aureus became resistant to methicillin, an antibiotic in the penicillin family used to treat infections. • 1990’s Vancomycin started becoming resistant.
What is MRSA? • Staphylococcus is a gram-positive bacteria, is one of 31 species that can grow into Staphylococcus aureus. • S aureus is an aerobic and opportunistic pathogen • S. aureus is a common bacteria that grows in the nares and the skin. • People are said to be “colonized” if they are carriers of MRSA, and “infected” if they become sick and symptomatic
MRSA Continued • MRSA is spread by contact, by touching skin to skin, or touching of an object that has been infected. • MRSA is most common in hospitals where people have weaker immune systems, and have open wounds available for infection to take place • CA-MRSA (Community Aquired) is on the rise. People susceptible are children, athletes, military personal, people living in crowded unsanitary conditions
MRSA signs and symptoms • MRSA begins as small red bumps that resemble pimples or a spider bite. This can emerge into a deeper grown abcess in the skin that causes pus to leak from the wound. • The bacteria can be confined to the skin, but may travel to other areas of the body causing infection to bones, joints, surgical areas, bloodstream, the heart, and lungs.
MRSA if left untreated can cause sepsis, toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing pneumonia to name a few. • MRSA and necrotizing pneumonia are typically caused by influenza, if left untreated lysosomes release enzymes that eat and kill cells, this causes a chain reaction in having more enzymes released and more cell destruction. • Sepsis is caused by the subsequent infection from mrsa in the body, if it reaches the blood stream the blood becomes toxic and spreads to other organs affecting them.
Treatment and prevention of MRSA • MRSA patients are treated in hospitals in secluded rooms if patients are infected. • Samples are taken from the anterior nares and grown in labs for 48 hours for detection of MRSA, if results are positive they are said to be infected. • Isolation precautions are taken for these patients. ALWAYS remember to wear gloves, gown, face mask (if droplet precautions in patients with respiratory infections) • After every patient be sure to wash hands, and use hand sanitizers. Clean everything that was in the room, or ambulance, that was used with the patient, or if severe caughing clean entire inside.
Treatment and prevention continued • For CA-MRSA look for signs and symptoms of the disease. • Avoid direct contact with open pussing sores, or abcesses. • If transporting patients have one person dressed with full body isolations that needs to be in contact with the patient, and the other personal available to not come in contact with the patient and be able to touch things like doors, elevator buttons etc. without contaminating them.
Treatment continued • Treatment is based on the underlying cause or symptoms. • Abcess are typically treated with surgical drainings. • IV antibiotics are used to treat many forms of MRSA, however many of these are forms are becoming resistant to anitbiotics, making it difficult to rid them of the infection. • Once the infection is gone patients are still “colonized” with MRSA. Meaning they are carriers, and can be carriers for weeks to years depending on their immune system, and many other extrinsic factors.