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  1. Original Contribution Nancy Love Positive Classroom Climate Presentation for building in-service meeting Fall 2012

  2. Creating a Positive Classroom Climate “The best way to predict the future is to create it.” --- John Scully

  3. Patricia M. Barbetta, Kathleen Leong Norona and David F. Bicard Classroom Behavior Management:A Dozen Common Mistakes and What to Do Instead • Presented by Nancy Love, HHS

  4. Defining misbehavior by how it looks tells us very little about why it occurred and doesn’t help much in our efforts to change behavior Mistake #1 Defining Misbehavior By How It Looks

  5. Most behaviors function for one of two following reasons: • to get something (e.g., attention from another student or teacher, gain a privilege, get a toy) • to avoid something (e.g., schoolwork, teacher demands Instead: Define Misbehavior By Its Function

  6. Not a good question – Why? • First, many students will not know the reason why they misbehaved. • Second, we often will not like their answers. Mistake #2 Asking “Why Did You Do That?”

  7. Functional Assessment definition • ABC Tool Antecedent Behavior Consequence 2. Record what happened immediately before the behavior 1. Record the misbehavior that occurred 3. Record what happened immediately after the behavior Instead: Assess the Behavior Directly to Determine its Function

  8. When an approach isn’t working, our first tendency is to try harder. The problem is that we most often try harder negatively. Mistake #3 When an Approach Isn’t Working, Try Harder

  9. Verbal redirecting • Proximity control • Reinforcing incompatible behaviors • Changing the academic tasks • Providing additional cues or prompts Instead of increasing negative consequences, increase the frequency of contingent praise for appropriate student behavior. Instead: Try Another Way

  10. Classroom rules play a vital role in effective classroom management. Rules alone, though exert little influence over student behavior. Mistake #4 Violating the Principles of Good Classroom Rules

  11. Four to six rules that could govern most classroom situations • Use short rule-setting meetings • Share rule-making guidelines with students • Positively stated rules are “do” rules • Praise students throughout the school day • Sign “Have you praised your students lately?” Instead: Follow the Guidelines for Classroom Rules

  12. Several misbehaviors are due to a lack of appropriate skills not a lack of motivation. These are “can’t dos”. Mistake #5 Treating All Misbehaviors as “Won’t Dos”

  13. Seven Pre-correction Steps • Identify the context and predictable behavior • Specify expected behavior • Systematically modify the context • Conduct behavior rehearsals • Provide strong reinforcement such as frequent and immediate teacher praise • Prompt expected behaviors • Monitor the plan Instead: Treat some behaviors as Can’t Dos

  14. Without proper planning, transitioning can be one of the most frustrating times of the day: • Inconsistent Expectations • Attention is diverted away from students Mistake #6 Lack of Planning for Transition Time

  15. Make transition expectations consistent (same rules apply for each type of transition) • Develop transition rules and teach them to the students (review frequently) • Provide readiness signals or cues for pending transitions • Monitor students’ performance and praise appropriate behavior Instead: Appropriately plan for Transition Time

  16. Ignoring can be a valuable tool when used with behavior-building strategies. Educators tend to take ignoring to the extreme by ignoring almost all misbehaviors or none at all. Neither approach is effective. Mistake #7 Ignoring All or Nothing at All

  17. Only ignore behaviors motivated for our attention (when behaviors are attention seeking it is best to ignore continuously – every single time) • Ignoring should be used in combination with behavior-building strategies, such as reinforcement of appropriate behaviors • Ignoring is not appropriate when students are engaging in extreme or dangerous behavior or when the misbehavior is not attention seeking Instead: Ignore Wisely

  18. Educators tend to overuse time out because it results in a reprieve from problematic students • Time out is also misused when it reinforces the misbehavior Mistake #8Overuse and Misuse of Time Out

  19. Remember time out is not a place but a process whereby all opportunities are withdrawn • For mildly disruptive misbehavior, time outs should be done in class with all forms of reinforcement removed for a brief time • More severe behaviors require out-of-class time out in a place that is not highly stimulating • Time out should always be used with pre-corrective, behavior-building strategies and reinforcement Instead: Follow the Principles of Effective Time Out

  20. Students are often given mixed signals as to what is expected and what will happen if they do not meet these expectations. Inconsistent expectations cause student confusion and frustration. Mistake #9Inconsistent Expectations and Consequences

  21. Set identifiable and consistent expectations • Reviewing expectations and rehearsing rules help build routines and minimize the potential for problems • Expectations are pointless if they are not backed up with reinforcement for compliance and reasonable negative consequences for noncompliance Instead: Have Clear Expectations That Are Enforced and Reinforced Consistently

  22. Managing classroom behavior may be more challenging than ever with increased class sizes, more students who come from stressful, chaotic homes, and increased diversity in students’ abilities and cultures Think collaborating with others requires too much time and energy to build rapport and come to a consensus on behavior – its time to change your priorities and strategies Mistake #10Viewing Ourselves as the Only Classroom Manager

  23. Enlist the help of others: • Implement self-monitoring • The power of peers • Student Peers • Teacher Peers • Parents • Administrators • School counselors, psychologists and other professionals as necessary Instead: Include Students, Parents, and Others in Management Efforts

  24. At times there is a direct link between our lessons and student misbehavior. Perhaps the lesson is too easy, too difficult, ineffective or non-stimulating. Mistake #11Missing the Link Between Instruction and Behavior

  25. The first line of defense in managing student behavior is effective instruction • Instruction is fast-paced • Includes high rates of active student responding • Involves modeling new behaviors • Provides guided practice • Provides positive and corrective feedback • Consistent use of strategies that share the characteristics of effective instruction Instead: Use Academic Instruction as a Behavior Management Tool

  26. Student misbehavior feels like a personal attack – When we take students’ misbehavior personally, we lose our objectivity, look for quick management fixes and get emotionally upset Mistake #12Taking Student Behavior Too Personally

  27. Professionals view behavior management as their responsibility • Professionals know the importance of having a sound management system in place for classroom issues and individual student problems • Professionals have realistic expectations for improvement • Professionals ask for assistance when it is needed Instead: Take Student Misbehavior Professionally Not Personally

  28. Every student experiences 5 positive interactions to every 1 negative interaction • Interactions may be with adults, peers, or self In A Positive Classroom Climate --

  29. Barbetta, P.M., Leong, N., &Bicard, D.F. (2005). Classroom behavior management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. Preventing School Failure, 49(3), 11. ProQuest Education Journals. Sources