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NON -VERBAL COMMUNICATION5 SKILLS. By- Dr. Shalini Kalia. Non Verbal Communication: Process of transmitting messages without spoken words, which can be communicated through:. Facial expressions Gestures Gaze Posture Space Clothing Hairstyles Adornment. Shoes Symbols

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Non Verbal Communication: Process of transmitting messages without spoken words, which can be communicated through:

Facial expressions










Intonation and stress

Voice quality


Speaking style



types of non verbal communication
Types of Non Verbal Communication

Kinesics (Body language)










Sign Language

Kinesics- Body language(the study of body movements, gestures, facial expressions, etc., as a means of communication)

Facial Expressions

Gestures : physical movements of arms, legs, hands, torso and head

Proxemics-Space Language(study of distance individuals maintain between each other while interacting and its significance)

Intimate zone

Personal Zone

Social Zone

Public Zone

Proxemics-Space Language(study of distance individuals maintain between each other while interacting and its significance)

Intimate-Physical contact/touch to 18 inches eg with our family members, closest friends and selected people

Personal-18 inches to 4 feet eg normal conversations with close friends, colleagues, associates and visitors

Social-4 to 12 feet. Used mostly for formal purposes

Public-12 feet to as far as we can see and hear

paralanguage or para linguistics systematic study of how a speaker verbalizes
Paralanguage or Para Linguistics ( systematic study of how a speaker verbalizes)
  • Pitch variation
  • Those who speak in monotones fail to keep listener’s attention
  • People in authority or when excited speak in high pitched voice
  • Speaking Speed
  • Fluency in language is not the same thing as the speed of speaking
  • We should present easy parts of message at a brisk pace and difficult, complicated parts at slower pace.
  • In state of anxiety, urgency we speak fast and when relaxed at a comfortable speed.
p aralanguage or para linguistics contd
Paralanguage or Para Linguistics (contd..)
  • Pause
  • Pace of speaking is also accompanied by pauses
  • But pauses have to be at the right moments
  • A pause can be highly effective in emphasizing the upcoming subject and in gaining listener’s attention
  • However frequent, arbitrary pauses spoil the speech and distract listener’s attention
  • Very important for a speaker to carefully monitor pauses
  • Non fluencies
  • Pauses often inserted with sounds like ah, oh, uh, um, you know, OK, yawning, laughing, chuckling…
  • Carefully and sparingly used they add fluency to speaker, give them time to breathe/ relax, make listener more alert
  • Too frequent insertions may irritate listener
p aralanguage or para linguistics contd1
Paralanguage or Para Linguistics (contd..)
  • Volume Variation
  • Loudness of our voice should be adjusted according to size of audience
  • Some speakers believe only way to sound convincing is to speak louder
  • Proper word stress

Eg: Have you met my wife before?

chronemics the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication
Chronemics(the study of the use of time in nonverbalcommunication)

Refers to the use of time as a message system including punctuality, amount of time spent with another and waiting time.

oculesics study of eye contact as a form of non verbal communication
Oculesics (Study of eye-contact as a form of non-verbal communication).


Staring Eyes: superiority/lack of respect, a threatening attitude or wish to insult

Too little eye contact: dishonesty, impoliteness, insincerity, shyness

Withdrawal of eye contact: sign of submission


Study of signals that an individual sends across through appearance, clothing style, perfume, personal objects like pens, cell phones etc.


Clothing and Accessories

haptics tactilics
  • Refers to communicating through the use of bodily contact
  • When used properly, touch can create feelings of warmth and trust
  • When used improperly, touch can betray trust and cause annoyance
  • Some cultures are very comfortable with bodily contact, others avoid it. Eg
  • In US touching has a lot to do with hierarchy
  • In Thailand it is offensive to touch head
olfactics study of sense of smell
Olfactics (study of sense of smell)

Someone’s smell can have a positive or negative effect on the oral message

chromatics communication of messages through colors
Chromatics (Communication of messages through colors)

It is a scientific movement which explores the physical properties of colour and the effect of color on humans

The connotations colors have may be positive or negative depending on the culture

In US common to wear black when mourning, in India people prefer white

In Hong Kong red is used for happiness or luck and traditional bridal dress; in Poland brides wear white

In Asia people like colored shampoos, in US shampoos tend to be light colored


Another important aspect in communication

When we are silent, we are also communicating! What we communicate depends on what kind of silence it is.

Mostly subject of conversation plays major role in this

The more emotionally loaded subject is, the more silence we need

Silence in group conversations are difficult to be handled for lot of people

sign language
Sign language

Visual Signs

Crossed bones under a skull as a danger signal

Cross over a cigarette as warning against smoking

Lights-green or red at traffic points, railway stations, outside operation theatre of hospital, revolving light on the top of VIP vehicle/ambulance

Audio Signs

Drum beats in jungles in olden times

Alarm signals

Blowing a horn

Buzzer, bells

effective use of non verbal communication
Effective Use of Non Verbal Communication

Observe and understand the non-verbal signals being sent your way on a moment to moment basis.

Use good eye contact

Stop what you were doing when your listeners look glassy-eyed or bored.

Adopt the most appropriate posture that suits the occasion

Understand the cultural nuances of the various forms of non-verbal communication.

Listener is critical of the speaker. Says something like: ‘I don’t like what you are saying and I disagree with you.’
indicates confident know all attitude often used when giving instructions advice to subordinates
Indicates confident, know all attitude, often used when giving instructions/advice to subordinates
person is under pressure give the person guarantees and assurances when this gesture appears
Person is under pressure. Give the person guarantees and assurances when this gesture appears.

Most chair straddlers are dominant individuals who will try to take control of other people when they become bored with the conversation and the back of the chair serves as good protection from any attack by group members.