Groundwater. Main topics: Location of groundwater Storage of groundwater Movement of Groundwater Groundwater erosion and deposition Groundwater systems and protection. The hydrosphere. Water located on and inside the Earth’s crust make up the hydrosphere .
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3% is contained by landmasses
Q = K (dh/dl)
Q = discharge velocity (m/s)
K = hydraulic conductivity (how well material transmits water) (m/s)
dh/dl = hydraulic gradient (slope of water table)
(dh is change in rise and dl is change in run)
Using Darcy’s Law: Q = K (dh/dl)
Example: fine sand (K=6m/day) vs. gravel (K=140m/day)
CO2 + H2O H2CO3
carbon dioxide + water carbonic acid
H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
carbonic acid hydrogen ions + bicarbonate ions
CaCO3 + H+ Ca2+ + HCO3-
calcium carbonate + hydrogen ions calcium ions + bicarbonate ions
- water will leak or seep out on to the surface.
H:\ES_class\Unit 3 - Surface process\18.swf