“I do not want to miss a good chance of getting us a slice of this magnificent African cake.” - King Leopold II of Belgium
Thoughts to consider… • Why do you think that there was such a demand for African land? • Which nations do you think were most fought over among the European powers? • Does this act of imperialism relate to any other acts in world history?
Defining Key Concepts… • IMPERIALISM: the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies • COLONIZATION: the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people (to settle an area and take control)
Africa in the 1800’s Continent made up of hundreds of ethnic groups and languages Slave trade European trading posts only along coasts Emissaries sent to investigate
Europeans Colonize Africa • Why Africa?! • Natural resources & raw materials (industrialization) • To build empires (nationalism) • NATIONALISM: Devotion to one's nation; love of your country & willingness to sacrifice anything for it • Spread Christianity • Racism? • Superiority v. Inferiority • Civilized v. Uncivilized • Three “G’s”: GOLD, GLORY, & GOD
“The sun never sets on the British Empire…” • European competition for colonies leads to establishing empires…
Factors Enabling Colonization • Inter-European power struggles and competition for preeminence (the fact of surpassing all others; superiority) • Ethnic conflicts in Africa • New advances in medicine • Malaria vaccine, Penicillin • Industrialization • New technology among the Europeans • Weapons, Steamships, Railroads • Social problems?
Industrial Revolution • INDUSTRIALIZATION:the development of a society • It refers to the large-scale production process of machines and new technologies that allow a society to move forward.
Industrial Revolution • European countries needed natural resources & raw materials (rubber, metals, minerals) • Africa had a plethora (overabundance) of natural resources • New markets for goods
Everyone wants a piece of the magnificent African cake… “Scramble for Africa”: Prospects of exploiting African resources that resulted in nationalist rivalries between European empires for control of Africa Berlin Conference: Meeting proposed by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck to devise ground rules with 14 European states for the colonization of Africa
SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA • The “scramble for Africa” took place between 1875 and 1900 • Geographical information compiled by explorers & adventurers held great interest for European imperialists • Henry Stanley of Belgium established a colony called Congo Free State, 18070’s • Taking advantage of Egypt’s unrest, Britain occupied Egypt, 1882
Berlin Conference • 1884-1885 • European leaders wanted to avoid war… • Agree upon carving up African continent into colonies • Drawn up without African participation • Provided the basis for the subsequent partition (break up), invasion, and colonization of Africa by various European powers • European armies sent to consolidate their claims & impose colonial rule
Berlin Conference • RESULT: a transformation of political & economic Africa, with virtually all parts of the continent colonized by 1900 • European colonies embraced all of Africa except Ethiopia & Liberia
Debriefing… • What areas did you get for your country? • What areas did your country actually get? • How fair was this for Europeans? • How fair was this for Africans?
Impacts & Effects of European Rule • African people had little power in their governments • Europeans gained power in part by encouraging rivalries among ethnic groups • Europeans took the best land to farm • Drew political boundaries that divided ethnic groups & forced different groups to live together
Ticket to Leave… Complete AFRICAN COLONIZATION TICKET-TO-LEAVE When finished, stick in period 7 bin! If time, you may begin your homework: Berlin Conference Diary Entry Assignment…