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Exploration and the Colonial Era. Chapter 1. Where should U.S. History start? Defend your answer!. Constitution Articles of Confederation End of Revolution Beginning of Revolution Colonization Natives Beringia. Write your response.

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where should u s history start defend your answer
Where should U.S. History start? Defend your answer!
  • Constitution
  • Articles of Confederation
  • End of Revolution
  • Beginning of Revolution
  • Colonization
  • Natives
  • Beringia
write your response
Write your response
  • Turn to your partner and share your ideas and reasons with each other. The person with the biggest shoe size should start. Tie breakers will be determined by largest hands. That person will share first all class period.
  • Does anyone want to share their partner’s brilliant idea? (Names first)
three worlds meet
Three Worlds Meet
  • What could the three worlds be?
    • America
    • Europe
    • Africa
the americas
The Americas
  • What do you already know about the different societies on the American Continent at the time that the three worlds met?
    • What societies existed?
    • What were some of the characteristics of those societies?
    • Share with partner, share as a group.
early american civilizations
Early American Civilizations
  • Beringia (land bridge between Asia & America)
  • Nomadic Tribes and their characteristics
    • Move around
    • Follow Food (Hunter/Gatherers)
    • Even food without feet moves
  • What has to happen first for nomadic tribes to transform into civilizations?
    • Write your response
    • Share with your partner
    • Good Answers? (On board)
early american civilizations1
Early American Civilizations
  • Maya: Yucatan, 250AD and 900AD
  • Aztec: Valley of Mexico, 1200’s
  • Inca: South America, 1400
  • Write down 3 facts that you already know about each of the societies listed above.
native societies within u s borders
Native Societies within U.S. Borders
  • Anasazi: Southwest Desert, 300BC to 1400AD
  • Pueblo: Southwest Desert (Anasazi descendant) 1400’s
  • Iroquois: Northeast Woodlands, 1400’s
  • Write down 3 facts that you already know about the societies listed above.
west african societies
West African Societies
  • Songhai: Below Sahara, 600 to 1600
  • Benin: Niger-Delta, 1400’s
  • Kongo: Congo River, 1400’s
  • Islam
    • Where did it start, by whom, how did it spread to Africa?
  • Portugal and Slaves
    • What does Portugal have to do with the slave trade?
europe in the 1400 s
Europe in the 1400’s
  • Social Hierarchy
  • Christianity (Crusades)
  • Reformation
  • Renaissance
  • Define each of the terms above and how they apply to European society in the 1400’s.
new sailing technologies
New Sailing Technologies
  • Lateen Sails (to sail more directly into the wind)
  • Shallow Draft (for easier coastal exploration)
  • Large Cargo Hold & Hatch (to carry more stuff and make more money)
  • Sternpost Rudder (for greater maneuverability)
voyages of columbus
Voyages of Columbus
  • First in October of 1492: Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria
  • Landed in the Bahamas, Met the Taino People, renamed San Salvador and claimed for Spain
  • Return to Hispaniola 1493 to colonize, make plantations and enslave Natives
  • Natives die by the thousands, what now?
  • 1500’s to 1800’s, Africa lost 10 million people
treaty of tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
  • Spain and Portugal
  • 1494
  • Spain gets West of line
  • Portugal gets East of line
columbian exchange
Columbian Exchange
  • Global transfer of living things that began with Columbus and continues today.
spain claims an empire
Spain Claims an Empire
  • Conquistadors: Spanish explorers looking for new lands for Spain rich in gold and silver
  • Hernando Cortes: 1519 heard about the wealthy Aztec civilization, went w/500 men to find it
  • Montezuma believes Cortes to be returning God, willingly hands over piles of gold
  • Aztec believed Montezuma was a traitor, had upraising, killed Montezuma and kicked out the Spaniards
  • Disease weakened Natives and made them easy pickings for the returning Cortes.

Watch Aztec Video

spanish pattern of conquest
Spanish pattern of Conquest
  • Mestizo: Mix with and marry into the native population
  • Encomienda: Force Natives into slavery
  • Many Spaniards say encomienda system is cruel so the monarchy abolishes it in 1542
  • What now?
  • Join slave trade and use Africans for labor
spain s golden age
Spain’s Golden Age
  • Conquer lands and wealthy civilizations (Aztec and Inca) all over the Americas (Mexico, Guatemala, Central and South America, Florida, West and South West U.S.)
  • Goals: Claim land, discover wealth, convert Natives
  • Missions all along the South West and Western U.S.
  • Natives rebel. Pope led 17,000 warriors against the Spanish. Succeeded for only 12 years.
  • April 1607, land and build Jamestown
  • Financed by joint-stock companies (vs. monarchy) want quick return on investment
  • Look for gold and neglect farming
  • After 5 months of suffering, John Smith forces them to farm, and seek help from the Natives
  • Settlement saved by new colonists and profitable crop (tobacco, brown gold)
colonies continue
Colonies Continue
  • Indentured Servants
  • Slavery: First African slaves landed in Virginia in 1619, were freed a few years later
  • Clash with Natives over land claims (remember Pocahontas?)
  • Unlike Spanish, English do not mix with Natives
puritan new england
Puritan New England
  • Puritans felt like English split with Catholic church did not go far enough.
  • Came to America to gain religious freedom
  • 1620 founded Plymouth colony (2nd permanent English settlement in America)
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony: led by John Winthrop. Right to vote only to adult male church members. No separation of church and state, taxes went to church & laws concerning church attendance.
king philip s war
King Philip’s War
  • After 40 years of growing tension between Natives and colonists
  • Several tribes unite under Wampanoag Chief Metacom (King Philip)
  • Spring 1765, starts attacking and burning colonists
  • Made it to the outskirts of Boston before giving up due to starvation and disease.
new netherlands
New Netherlands
  • 1621 Dutch West India company given permission to colonize in America
  • Interested in American fur trade
  • Drive out and take over New Sweden
  • Taken over by British (wedge) in 1664
  • Duke of York new owner so New Amsterdam becomes New York.
  • Gives a portion to some friends and call it New Jersey (after British Island)
  • Late 1600’s founded by William Penn
  • Quaker (Equality, pacifism, religious tolerance, democracy)
  • Pays the Natives for their land and tried to live in peace with them
thirteen colonies
Thirteen Colonies
  • Founded by the British in the 1600’s and 1700’s
  • Existed for the benefit of New England
  • Mercantilism: find gold and silver and/or establish a positive balance of trade.
navigation acts
Navigation Acts
  • Passed by British in 1651
    • Countries could only trade with colonies if goods were transported on British ships
    • Vessels had to operated by crews that were at least ¾ British
    • Certain products could only be exported to England
    • Goods traded between the colonies and Europe had to go through an English port
plantation economy
Plantation Economy
  • Begins in the South mostly because of the geography
  • Huge, self-sufficient, one crop farms.
  • Labor intensive
  • Required Slaves
middle passage
Middle Passage
  • Slave Trade portion of Triangular Trade
  • Brutal, unsanitary, cramped conditions
  • 13% expected to die during journey
  • 90% work in fields
  • Try to keep their culture alive despite beatings
  • Many rebellions, some successful (Stono)
commerce in the north
Commerce in the North
  • Geography lends itself to industry and commerce, not plantations
  • Powerful and wealthy merchant class
  • Large cities develop
  • Most of the money is in the North
  • Movement that started in Europe after the Renaissance
  • Renewed interest in science and reason, beyond religion and tradition
great awakening
Great Awakening
  • Started as a Puritan movement aimed at rekindling the dying flame of strict religious practices.
  • Religious revivals held by people like John Edwards.
french and indian war
French and Indian War
  • Archrivals: England and France, particularly aggressive through 1600’s and 1700’s
  • Begin fighting over the Ohio River Valley
  • Natives take sides
  • Great Britain eventually wins with the help of military leaders like George Washington and William Pitt
  • Even though Britain wins King issues the Proclamation of 1763 and instructs the colonists to stay out of Native Territory west of the Appalacians.